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Title / Authors / Details Open Access Download

Syk tyrosine kinase is required for the positive selection of immature B cells into the recirculating B cell pool.
Turner M, Gulbranson-Judge A, Quinn ME, Walters AE, MacLennan IC, Tybulewicz VL

The tyrosine kinase Syk has been implicated as a key signal transducer from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). We show here that mutation of the Syk gene completely blocks the maturation of immature B cells into recirculating cells and stops their entry into B cell follicles. Furthermore, using radiation chimeras we demonstrate that this developmental block is due to the absence of Syk in the B cells themselves. Syk-deficient B cells are shown to have the life span of normal immature B cells. If this is extended by over-expression of Bcl-2, they accumulate in the T zone and red pulp of the spleen in increased numbers, but still fail to mature to become recirculating follicular B cells. Despite this defect in maturation, Syk-deficient B cells were seen to give rise to switched as well as nonswitched splenic plasma cells. Normally only a proportion of immature B cells is recruited into the recirculating pool. Our results suggest that Syk transduces a BCR signal that is absolutely required for the positive selection of immature B cells into the recirculating B cell pool.

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The Journal of experimental medicine, 186, 0022-1007, 1997

PMID: 9396770

Open Access

A requirement for the Rho-family GTP exchange factor Vav in positive and negative selection of thymocytes.
Turner M, Mee PJ, Walters AE, Quinn ME, Mellor AL, Zamoyska R, Tybulewicz VL

The T cell repertoire is shaped by positive and negative selection of thymocytes that express low levels of T cell receptor (TCR) and both CD4 and CD8. TCR-mediated signals that determine these selection processes are only partly understood. Vav, a GDP-GTP exchange factor for Rho-family proteins, is tyrosine phosphorylated following TCR stimulation, suggesting that it may transduce TCR signals. We now demonstrate that mice lacking Vav are viable and display a profound defect in the positive selection of both class I- and class II-restricted T cells. In contrast, Vav is not essential for negative selection, though in its absence negative selection is much less effective. Vav may influence the efficiency of TCR-induced selection events by regulating the intracellular calcium flux of thymocytes.

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Immunity, 7, 1074-7613, 1997

PMID: 9354466

Open Access

Syk and Fyn are required by mouse megakaryocytes for the rise in intracellular calcium induced by a collagen-related peptide.
Melford SK, Turner M, Briddon SJ, Tybulewicz VL, Watson SP

Stimulation of platelets by collagen leads to activation of a tyrosine kinase cascade resulting in secretion and aggregation. We have recently shown that this pathway involves rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of an Fc receptor gamma chain, which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), enabling interaction with the tandem SH2 domains of the tyrosine kinase Syk. Activation of Syk lies upstream of tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma2. In the present study we sought to test directly the role of the ITAM/Syk interaction and the role of the Src-related kinases in collagen receptor signaling using mouse megakaryocytes. We demonstrate that the calcium-mobilizing action of a collagen-related peptide (CRP) is kinase-dependent, inhibited by the microinjection of the tandem SH2 domains of Syk and abolished in Syk-deficient mice. Furthermore, the CRP response is abolished by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1 and inhibited in Fyn-deficient mice. In contrast, the calcium response to the G-protein-linked receptor agonist thrombin is not significantly altered under these conditions. These results provide direct evidence of the functional importance of Fyn and Syk in collagen receptor signaling and support the megakaryocyte as a model for the study of proteins involved in this pathway.

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The Journal of biological chemistry, 272, 0021-9258, 1997

PMID: 9346887

Open Access

A critical role for Syk in signal transduction and phagocytosis mediated by Fcgamma receptors on macrophages.
Crowley MT, Costello PS, Fitzer-Attas CJ, Turner M, Meng F, Lowell C, Tybulewicz VL, DeFranco AL

Receptors on macrophages for the Fc region of IgG (FcgammaR) mediate a number of responses important for host immunity. Signaling events necessary for these responses are likely initiated by the activation of Src-family and Syk-family tyrosine kinases after FcgammaR cross-linking. Macrophages derived from Syk-deficient (Syk-) mice were defective in phagocytosis of particles bound by FcgammaRs, as well as in many FcgammaR-induced signaling events, including tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of cellular substrates and activation of MAP kinases. In contrast, Syk- macrophages exhibited normal responses to another potent macrophage stimulus, lipopolysaccharide. Phagocytosis of latex beads and Escherichia coli bacteria was also not affected. Syk- macrophages exhibited formation of polymerized actin structures opposing particles bound to the cells by FcgammaRs (actin cups), but failed to proceed to internalization. Interestingly, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase also blocked FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis at this stage. Thus, PI 3-kinase may participate in a Syk-dependent signaling pathway critical for FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis. Macrophages derived from mice deficient for the three members of the Src-family of kinases expressed in these cells, Hck, Fgr, and Lyn, exhibited poor Syk activation upon FcgammaR engagement, accompanied by a delay in FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis. These observations demonstrate that Syk is critical for FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis, as well as for signal transduction in macrophages. Additionally, our findings provide evidence to support a model of sequential tyrosine kinase activation by FcgammaR's analogous to models of signaling by the B and T cell antigen receptors.

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The Journal of experimental medicine, 186, 0022-1007, 1997

PMID: 9314552

Open Access

The Fc receptor gamma-chain and the tyrosine kinase Syk are essential for activation of mouse platelets by collagen.
Poole A, Gibbins JM, Turner M, van Vugt MJ, van de Winkel JG, Saito T, Tybulewicz VL, Watson SP

Activation of mouse platelets by collagen is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins including the Fc receptor gamma-chain, the tyrosine kinase Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2, suggesting that collagen signals in a manner similar to that of immune receptors. This hypothesis has been tested using platelets from mice lacking the Fc receptor gamma-chain or Syk. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2 by collagen stimulation is absent in mice lacking the Fc receptor gamma-chain. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma2 by collagen stimulation is also absent in mice platelets which lack Syk, although phosphorylation of the Fc receptor gamma-chain is maintained. In contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins by the G protein-coupled receptor agonist thrombin is maintained in mouse platelets deficient in Fc receptor gamma-chain or Syk. The absence of Fc receptor gamma-chain or Syk is accompanied by a loss of secretion and aggregation responses in collagen- but not thrombin-stimulated platelets. These observations provide the first direct evidence of an essential role for the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in signalling by a non-immune receptor stimulus.

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The EMBO journal, 16, 0261-4189, 1997

PMID: 9171347

Open Access

Critical role for the tyrosine kinase Syk in signalling through the high affinity IgE receptor of mast cells.
Costello PS, Turner M, Walters AE, Cunningham CN, Bauer PH, Downward J, Tybulewicz VL

Activation of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI) of mast cells, a member of the antigen receptor family, leads to the release of allergic mediators, a critical event in the onset of immediate hypersensitivity. Stimulation of Fc epsilon RI results in the rapid association and activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. Using Syk-deficient mast cells we show that they fail to degranulate, synthesize leukotrienes and secrete cytokines when stimulated through Fc epsilon RI, conclusively demonstrating an essential role for Syk in Fc epsilon RI signalling. Furthermore, our data strongly supports a model of Fc epsilon RI engagement leading to the sequential activation of the tyrosine kinases Lyn and then Syk. A similar mechanism is likely to apply to signal transduction through all members of the antigen receptor family.

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Oncogene, 13, 0950-9232, 1996

PMID: 9000133

Disulphide bonding in a stylar self-incompatibility ribonuclease of Nicotiana alata.
Oxley D, Bacic A

Many flowering plants have developed a self-incompatibility mechanism, which is controlled by a single polyallelic locus (the S-locus), to prevent inbreeding. The products of the S-locus in the styles of solanaceous plants are an allelic series of glycoproteins with RNase activity [McClure, B. A., Haring, V., Ebert, P. R., Anderson, M. A., Simpson, R. J., Sakiyama, F. & Clarke, A. E. (1989) Nature 342, 955-957]. These S-RNases show some amino-acid-sequence similarity with two fungal RNases (T2 and Rh), including the presence of two active-site His residues, which suggests a common three-dimensional structure. Disulphide bonding is important in the maintenance of the three-dimensional structure of the fungal RNases [Kurihara, H., Mitsui, Y., Ohgi, K., Irie, M., Mizuno, H. & Nakamura, T. (1992) FEBS Lett. 306, 189-192] and the S-RNases [Tsai, D. S., Lee, H.-S., Post, L. C., Kreiling, K. M. & Kao, T.-H. (1992) Sex. Plant Reprod. 5, 256-263]. We have used the S2-allele RNase of Nicotiana alata, which has nine Cys residues, to establish the pattern of disulphide bonding. The disulphide bonds Cys16-Cys21, Cys45-Cys94, Cys153-Cys182 and Cys165-Cys176 are consistent with the S2-RNase having a similar three-dimensional structure to RNase Rh. A free Cys residue (Cys95) adjacent to Cys45-Cys94 promotes a rapid specific disulphide migration when the protein is exposed to denaturing conditions.

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European journal of biochemistry / FEBS, 242, 0014-2956, 1996

PMID: 8954155

Structure of N-glycans on the S3- and S6-allele stylar self-incompatibility ribonucleases of Nicotiana alata.
Oxley D, Munro SL, Craik DJ, Bacic A

Self-incompatibility is a mechanism developed by many plants to prevent inbreeding. The products of the self-incompatibility (S)-locus in the styles of solanaceous plants are a series of glycoproteins with ribonuclease activity. In this study, we report on the N-glycans from the stylar self-incompatibility S3- and S6-ribonucleases of Nicotiana alata, which were enzymically released and fractionated by high-pH anion-exchange HPLC. A total of 14 N-glycans were identified and characterized by a combination of electrospray-ionization mass-spectrometry, 1H-NMR spectros-copy, chemical degradation, and methylation analyses. This patterns of N-glycosylation is much more complex than that previously found on the N.alata S1- and S2-RNases, each of which contained only four N-glycans.

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Glycobiology, 6, 0959-6658, 1996

PMID: 8922956

[Occlusive hydrocephalus as a complication of von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis--case report].
Kelemen A, Bozić K, Ivetić V, Filipović D

Phacomatoses are hereditary disease caused by germinative matrix disorder. Apart from known proliferative and tumor processes on peripheral nerves and their roots which make up a familiar picture of this disease to all neurologist, other tissue and organ malformations of octo and mesodermal origin may occur. This is a case report of a girl with neurofibromatosis type I after Riccardi with occlusive hydrocephalus complication. We pointed to a great number of neurofibromatosis complications, their prompt detection and treatment.

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Medicinski pregled, 48, 0025-8105, 1995

PMID: 8628194

Acetylcholinesterase accelerates assembly of amyloid-beta-peptides into Alzheimer's fibrils: possible role of the peripheral site of the enzyme.
NC Inestrosa, A Alvarez, CA Pérez, RD Moreno, M Vicente, C Linker, OI Casanueva, C Soto, J Garrido

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an important component of cholinergic synapses, colocalizes with amyloid-beta peptide (A beta) deposits of Alzheimer's brain. We report here that bovine brain AChE, as well as the human and mouse recombinant enzyme, accelerates amyloid formation from wild-type A beta and a mutant A beta peptide, which alone produces few amyloid-like fibrils. The action of AChE was independent of the subunit array of the enzyme, was not affected by edrophonium, an active site inhibitor, but it was affected by propidium, a peripheral anionic binding site ligand. Butyrylcholinesterase, an enzyme that lacks the peripheral site, did not affect amyloid formation. Furthermore, AChE is a potent amyloid-promoting factor when compared with other A beta-associated proteins. Thus, in addition to its role in cholinergic synapses, AChE may function by accelerating A beta formation and could play a role during amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's brain.

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Neuron, 16, 4, 1996

PMID: 8608006

Open Access

Microheterogeneity of N-glycosylation on a stylar self-incompatibility glycoprotein of Nicotiana alata.
Oxley D, Bacic A

Gametophytic self-incompatibility, a mechanism that prevents inbreeding in some families of flowering plants, is mediated by the products of a single genetic locus, the S-locus. The products of the S-gene in the female sexual tissues of Nicotiana alata are an allelic series of glycoproteins with RNase activity. In this study, we report on the microheterogeneity of N-linked glycosylation at the four potential N-glycosylation sites of the S2-glycoprotein. The S-glycoproteins from N.alata contain from one to five potential N-glycosylation sites based on the consensus sequence Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr. The S2-glycoprotein contains four potential N-glycosylation sites at Asn27, Asn37, Asn38 and Asn 150, designated sites I, II, IV and V, respectively. Site III is absent from the S2-glycoprotein. Analysis of glycopeptides generated from the S2-glycoprotein by trypsin and chymotrypsin digestions revealed the types of glycans and the degree of microheterogeneity present at each site. Sites I (Asn27) and IV (Asn138) display microheterogeneity, site II (Asn37) contains only a single type of N-glycan, and site V (Asn150) is not glycosylated. The microheterogeneity observed at site I on the S2-glycoprotein is the same as that observed at the only site, site I, on the S1-glycoprotein (Woodward et al., Glycobiology, 2, 241-250, 1992). Since the N-glycosylation consensus sequence at site I is conserved in all S-glycoproteins from other species of self-incompatible solanaceous plants, glycosylation at this site may be important to their function. No other post-translational modifications (e.g. O-glycosylation, phosphorylation) were detected on the S2-glycoprotein.

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Glycobiology, 5, 0959-6658, 1995

PMID: 8563138

Characterization of ligand binding by the human p55 tumour-necrosis-factor receptor. Involvement of individual cysteine-rich repeats.
Corcoran AE, Barrett K, Turner M, Brown A, Kissonerghis AM, Gadnell M, Gray PW, Chernajovsky Y, Feldmann M

Two soluble tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha(TNF)-binding proteins are derived from the extracellular domains of the p55 and p75 TNF receptors. They are considered to play a pivotal regulatory role in TNF-mediated inflammatory processes, including diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, by competing with the cell surface receptors for TNF and lymphotoxin (LT, tumour-necrosis factor beta). The extracellular domains of the two receptors each contain four similar cysteine-rich repeats of about 40 amino acids, in common with several other cell surface proteins including the p75 nerve-growth-factor receptor and the CD40 and Fas antigens. The aim of this study was to characterize the involvement of the four cysteine-rich repeats of the human p55 TNF receptor in TNF and LT binding by both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor. Individual repeats were systematically deleted by PCR mutagenesis and the variants transiently expressed in COS cells. Immunoprecipitated receptor variants exhibited the expected sizes on SDS/PAGE gels, and bound a panel of conformation-dependent anti-(TNF receptor) antibodies. Binding of TNF by the four soluble derivatives was compared with binding by the wild-type soluble receptor using a TNF-affinity column and a BIAcore Biosensor, by measurement of their ability to inhibit TNF cytotoxicity on WEHI cells, and 125I-TNF binding to U937 cells. delta 4, which lacks the fourth cysteine-rich repeat, bound TNF comparably with the full-length soluble receptor. TNF-binding affinity was unaltered by deletion of the fourth membrane-proximal cysteine-rich repeat, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the transmembrane derivatives. We conclude that the fourth cysteine-rich repeat is not required for TNF binding. In contrast, both the soluble and the transmembrane derivatives lacking any one of the first, second or third repeats failed to bind TNF. Although we cannot entirely exclude the possibility that this may be due to indirect conformational change, rather than the removal of essential epitopes, our results suggest that the first three repeats are each required for TNF binding by both the soluble and the cell-surface receptor.

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European journal of biochemistry / FEBS, 223, 0014-2956, 1994

PMID: 8055960

Open Access

Defective antigen receptor-mediated proliferation of B and T cells in the absence of Vav.
Tarakhovsky A, Turner M, Schaal S, Mee PJ, Duddy LP, Rajewsky K, Tybulewicz VL

Crosslinking of B- or T-cell antigen receptors results in the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins, including Vav, a protein expressed in cells of the haematopoietic system. Vav contains an array of structural motifs that include Src-homology domains SH2/SH3 and regions of homology to the guanine-nucleotide-exchange protein Dbl, pleckstrin and protein kinase C (refs 5-9). Using the RAG-complementation approach, we have analysed in vivo differentiation and in vitro responses of B- and T-lineage cells generated by injection of embryonic stem cells homozygous for a null mutation in the vav gene into blastocysts of RAG-1- or RAG-2-deficient mice. Here we report that antigen receptor-mediated proliferative responses of B and T cells in vitro are severely reduced in the absence of Vav. We also suggest a direct link between the low proliferative response of Vav-deficient B and T cells and the reduced number of these cells in peripheral lymphoid organs of chimaeric mice.

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Nature, 374, 0028-0836, 1995

PMID: 7700358

Open Access

Structural and serological characterisation of an O-specific polysaccharide from Serratia plymuthica.
Aucken HM, Oxley D, Wilkinson SG

The surface polysaccharides of a strain of Serratia plymuthica were characterised and shown to consist of a linear, acidic galactoglucomannan as well as a major and a minor neutral galactan. Immunoblotting results demonstrated cross-reactions between this strain and others with similar galactans (S. marcescens O16 and O20, Klebsiella O1, and Pasteurella haemolytica T4 and T10).

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FEMS microbiology letters, 111, 0378-1097, 1993

PMID: 7691682

Structure of the N-linked oligosaccharides from tridacnin, a lectin found in the haemolymph of the giant clam Hippopus hippopus.
Puanglarp N, Oxley D, Currie GJ, Bacic A, Craik DJ, Yellowlees D

Tridacnin, a glycoprotein lectin, was isolated from the symbiotic marine clam Hippopus hippopus and the structure of its major N-glycan chains determined. Tridacnin contains only N-linked glycans which were quantitatively cleaved by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F. Following purification by anion-exchange HPLC, the structures of the oligosaccharides were established using a combination of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry, 1H-NMR spectroscopy and linkage analysis. The N-glycans are primarily of the oligomannose type but, in addition, some contain a novel 6-O-Me group on the terminal mannose residue of the chain. The N-glycan chains had the following structures. [formula: see text]

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European journal of biochemistry / FEBS, 232, 0014-2956, 1995

PMID: 7588729

Perinatal lethality and blocked B-cell development in mice lacking the tyrosine kinase Syk.
Turner M, Mee PJ, Costello PS, Williams O, Price AA, Duddy LP, Furlong MT, Geahlen RL, Tybulewicz VL

The tyrosine kinase Syk (relative molecular mass 72,000), which is widely expressed in haematopoietic cells, becomes associated with and activated by engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor. Furthermore, it has been implicated in signalling through the receptors for interleukin-2 (IL-2), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Fc, the T cell receptor, as well as through receptors for several platelet agonists. A homologous kinase, ZAP-70, is crucial in signalling through the T-cell receptor and in T-cell development. Using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, we created mice null for the syk gene which showed petechiae in utero and died shortly after birth. Irradiated mice reconstituted with Syk-deficient fetal liver showed a block in B-cell development at the pro-B to pre-B cell transition, consistent with a key role for Syk in pre-B-cell receptor signalling. Despite the production of small numbers of immature B cells, Syk-deficient radiation chimaeras failed to accumulate mature B cells, indicating a possible role for this protein in the production or maintenance of mature B cells. In addition, whereas the development of alpha beta T cells proceeded normally, Syk-deficient mice showed impaired development of thymocytes using the V gamma 3 variable region gene (V gamma 3+ thymocytes). Finally, we show that Syk is not required for signalling through the IL-2 and G-CSF receptors.

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Nature, 378, 0028-0836, 1995

PMID: 7477352

Open Access

Structural studies of the putative O-specific polysaccharide of Serratia marcescens O9.
Oxley D, Wilkinson SG

A polymeric fraction containing the putative O-antigen has been isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of the reference strain (CDC 4534-60) for serogroup O9 of Serratia marcescens. The major component of the fraction was a polymer with a disaccharide repeating-unit of L-rhamnose (Rha) and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose (GalNAc) with the following structure:----3)D-GalpNAc(beta 1----3)L-Rhap(alpha 1----. Evidence for the presence in the fraction of a similar, minor polymer containing 4-substituted rhamnose residues was provided by the NMR spectra, methylation analysis, and Smith degradation.

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European journal of biochemistry / FEBS, 166, 0014-2956, 1987

PMID: 3301342

Structural studies of glucorhamnans isolated from the lipopolysaccharides of reference strains for Serratia marcescens serogroups O4 and O7, and of an O14 strain.
Oxley D, Wilkinson SG

Partially acetylated glucorhamnans have been isolated from the lipopolysaccharides of three strains of Serratia marcescens. The polymer from the reference strain (C.D.C. 864-57) for serogroup O4 has the disaccharide repeating-unit shown below, in which acetylation at position 2 of the rhamnosyl residue is approximately 90% complete. Similar glucorhamnans from the reference strain (C.D.C. 843-57) for serogroup O7 and from a pigmented strain (NM) of serogroup O14 differ only in the configuration of the L-rhamnopyranosyl residue (beta) and the extent of O-acetylation (O7, almost stoichiometric; NM, 80-90%). Glucorhamnans of the second type have been isolated previously from the lipopolysaccharides of other strains of S. marcescens, including the reference strain for serogroup O6 and another pigmented O14 strain (N.C.T.C. 1377). In all cases, the lipopolysaccharide extracts also contained acidic glycans, but the glucorhamnans are believed to constitute the integral side-chains. (Formula: see text).

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Carbohydrate research, 175, 0008-6215, 1988

PMID: 3288341

Structure of a neutral polymer isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Serratia marcescens O5 (C.D.C. 867-57).
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

Carbohydrate research, 172, 0008-6215, 1988

PMID: 3286000

Studies of lipopolysaccharides from two strains (C.D.C. 3607-60 and IP 421) of Serratia marcescens O13: structure of the putative O13 antigen.
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

Structural studies have been carried out on the putative O-specific polysaccharide of the reference strain (C.D.C. 3607-60) for Serratia marcescens O13. Circumstantial evidence that the O13 antigen is a microcapsular, acidic polymer, rather than an integral part of the lipopolysaccharide, has been obtained. Degradative and spectroscopic studies established that the polymer is based on the repeating unit shown, in which the glucuronic acid residue of the linear pentasaccharide carries the lateral 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl substituent in only about half of the units. The same polymer, again with non-stoichiometric substitution, is also produced by strain IP 421 (O13:H7). The latter strain also produces a neutral polymer which appears to constitute the side chain of the lipopolysaccharide. This polymer, which has a disaccharide repeating-unit of 2-substituted beta-D-ribofuranosyl and 4-substituted 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl residues, has been isolated previously from the lipopolysaccharides of the reference strains for S. marcescens serogroups O12 and O14, and appears to be the antigen known to be shared by these strains. (Formula: see text).

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Carbohydrate research, 172, 0008-6215, 1988

PMID: 3285999

Interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor mRNA expression in rheumatoid arthritis: prolonged production of IL-1 alpha.
Buchan G, Barrett K, Turner M, Chantry D, Maini RN, Feldmann M

In rheumatoid arthritis there is a chronic immune and inflammatory reaction which can lead to the destruction of the diseased joint. Cytokine gene expression was studied in synovial cells using cDNA probes specific for human interleukin 1 (IL-1), -alpha and IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), -alpha and TNF beta (lymphotoxin); protein molecules which induce cartilage degradation and bone resorption. In all cases studied, IL-1 mRNA was present in freshly isolated synovial cells from fluid or membrane. Compared to levels of IL-1 mRNA found in optimally activated normal blood mononuclear cells, the levels of IL-1 alpha mRNA were high in seven of the nine patients studied, whereas IL-1 beta mRNA, the dominant form in blood, was relatively lower. TNF alpha and TNF beta mRNA were also detected. Rheumatoid synovial cells, cultured without any stimulus, continued to express high levels of IL-1 alpha mRNA for up to 5 days, compared to the 24 h response of activated blood cells; IL-1 beta mRNA in culture was also prolonged. Cultures of rheumatoid joint cells produced IL-1 bioactivity, with roughly equal amounts of IL-1 alpha and beta, as assessed using neutralizing antibodies. TNF bioactivity was also detected which may be of importance as TNF induces the production of IL-1. The finding of these mediators produced in large amounts in active rheumatoid synovial cells suggests that mutually stimulatory cell interactions, mediated by these molecules, may be important in the chronic inflammation and tissue destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.

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Clinical and experimental immunology, 73, 0009-9104, 1988

PMID: 3264773

Open Access

Post-transcriptional control of IL-1 gene expression in the acute monocytic leukemia line THP-1.
Turner M, Chantry D, Feldmann M

The acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 secretes predominantly IL-1 beta after treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and tumour promoting phorbol ester (PMA). IL-1 alpha is also secreted, but represents less than 10% of the total IL-1 activity. This differential is reflected at the level of mRNA as IL-1 beta mRNA is more abundant than IL-1 alpha mRNA. Studies of transcription in isolated nuclei however indicate that each gene is transcribed at a similar rate, suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms regulate the relative abundance of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA. Measurement of RNA half life after addition of alpha-amanitin (an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II) indicate that IL-1 alpha mRNA is not as stable as IL-1 beta mRNA suggesting one mechanism for the different relative levels of RNA.

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Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 156, 0006-291X, 1988

PMID: 3263853

Comparison of patterns of expression of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin and interleukin-6 mRNA.
Turner M, Feldmann M

The expression of the mRNA encoding tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin and interleukin-6 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analysed. Unstimulated cells contained no detectable mRNA for these cytokines, however each mRNA was transiently expressed after stimulation with either the combination of phytohaemagglutinin and phorbol ester or the single stimulus of lipopolysaccharide. The dual stimulus yielded the stronger signal. The cytokine mRNA's had short half lives, but were stabilised following protein synthesis inhibition. Cyclosporin A completely blocked induction of lymphotoxin and partially inhibited induction of TNF and IL-6 mRNA. The features of regulation described in this paper suggest these genes belong within the "early" set of genes expressed following immune cell activation.

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Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 153, 0006-291X, 1988

PMID: 3260492

Human T cells from autoimmune and normal individuals can produce tumor necrosis factor.
Turner M, Londei M, Feldmann M

T cell clones derived from patients with autoimmune diseases were found to be capable of producing tumor necrosis factor (TNF). This was demonstrated by stimulating the clones, in the absence of accessory cells, with antibodies against the Ti/T3 complex and with recombinant interleukin 2 (IL2). Analysis of RNA extracted from these clones showed that TNF mRNA was more abundant than lymphotoxin (LT) mRNA. We also found that TNF protein in the supernatants of these clones was generally more abundant than LT as assessed by using the murine L929 cell assay. TNF production was not limited to T cells from autoimmune individuals, since the T cell tumor HUT78 and T cells purified from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals also made TNF. Unlike the T cell clones, HUT78 produced greater amounts of LT mRNA than TNF mRNA. Induction of TNF mRNA in T cells from healthy individuals displayed a two-signal requirement (phorbol myristate 13-acetate and phytohemagglutinin or OKT3 and phorbol myristate 13-acetate), similar to that described for the induction of the T cell lymphokines IL 2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Additionally we found that IL2 alone was sufficient to induce TNF in these cells when they had been precultured with phytohemagglutinin for 7 days to express IL 2 receptors. The cloned T cells we have characterized also produce IFN-gamma which was detected in the supernatants of the clones using a radioimmunoassay. The evidence suggests that T cells can produce TNF and have the potential to deliver by themselves the dual and synergistic signals of TNF/LT and IFN-gamma to target cells, a process which may be of importance in the pathogenesis of human autoimmunity.

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European journal of immunology, 17, 0014-2980, 1987

PMID: 3121358

Open Access