Publications

The Babraham Institute Publications database contains details of all publications resulting from our research groups and scientific services.

Individual publications are linked to the website of the journal - subscriptions may be required to view the full text. The database also includes Open Access publications, which can be identified by the icons found on search results.

Open Access symbol We are working to provide Open Access to as many publications as possible. 'Green' Open Access publications are marked by the pink 'Download' icon. Click on the icon to access a pre-print PDF version of the publication. ​'Gold' Open Access publications have the gold open padlock icon. You can read the full version of these papers on the publishing journal’s website without a subscription.

Title / Authors / Details Open Access Download

Cell signalling: IP3 receptors channel calcium into cell death.
CJ Hanson, MD Bootman, HL Roderick

There is substantial evidence that Ca2+ fluxes occur during most forms of apoptosis, and that inhibiting such fluxes protects cells from death. IP3 receptors--ligand-gated channels that release Ca2+ from intracellular stores--are emerging as key sites for regulation by pro- and anti-apoptotic factors.

+ View Abstract

Current biology : CB, 14, 21, 2004

PMID: 15530388

Resourceful imprinting.
Constância M, Kelsey G, Reik W

Nature, 432, 1476-4687, 2004

PMID: 15525980

The Molecular Pages of the mesotelencephalic dopamine consortium (DopaNet).
Le Novère N, Donizelli M

DopaNet http://www.dopanet.org is a Systems Biology initiative that aims to investigate precisely and quantitatively all the aspects of neurotransmission in a specific neuronal system, the mesotelencephalic dopamine system. The project should lead to large-scale models of molecular and cellular processes involved in neuronal signaling. A prerequisite is the proper storage of knowledge coming from the literature.

+ View Abstract

BMC bioinformatics, 5, 1471-2105, 2004

PMID: 15518589

Open Access

Imprinting on distal chromosome 7 in the placenta involves repressive histone methylation independent of DNA methylation.
Lewis A, Mitsuya K, Umlauf D, Smith P, Dean W, Walter J, Higgins M, Feil R, Reik W

Imprinted genes are expressed from only one of the parental chromosomes and are marked epigenetically by DNA methylation and histone modifications. The imprinting center 2 (IC2) on mouse distal chromosome 7 is flanked by several paternally repressed genes, with the more distant ones imprinted exclusively in the placenta. We found that most of these genes lack parent-specific DNA methylation, and genetic ablation of methylation does not lead to loss of their imprinting in the trophoblast (placenta). The silent paternal alleles of the genes are marked in the trophoblast by repressive histone modifications (dimethylation at Lys9 of histone H3 and trimethylation at Lys27 of histone H3), which are disrupted when IC2 is deleted, leading to reactivation of the paternal alleles. Thus, repressive histone methylation is recruited by IC2 (potentially through a noncoding antisense RNA) to the paternal chromosome in a region of at least 700 kb and maintains imprinting in this cluster in the placenta, independently of DNA methylation. We propose that an evolutionarily older imprinting mechanism limited to extraembryonic tissues was based on histone modifications, and that this mechanism was subsequently made more stable for use in embryonic lineages by the recruitment of DNA methylation.

+ View Abstract

Nature genetics, 36, 1061-4036, 2004

PMID: 15516931

Redox regulation of phosphatase function.
Leslie NR, Lindsay Y, Ross SH, Downes CP

Although reactive oxygen species play important roles in cellular physiology as signalling molecules, their molecular targets are largely unknown. A probable group of targets for mediating many of the effects of reactive oxygen species on cell signalling is the large diverse family of cysteine-dependent phosphatases, which includes the protein tyrosine phosphatases. Our work and that of others suggest that the oxidative inactivation of protein and lipid phosphatases plays an important part in signalling, downstream of many cellular stimuli. Future studies should give us a clearer picture of the role of phosphatase inactivation in cellular behaviour and explain how specificity is achieved in redox signalling.

+ View Abstract

Biochemical Society transactions, 32, 0300-5127, 2004

PMID: 15506952

Essential role for the p110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the allergic response.
Ali K, Bilancio A, Thomas M, Pearce W, Gilfillan AM, Tkaczyk C, Kuehn N, Gray A, Giddings J, Peskett E, Fox R, Bruce I, Walker C, Sawyer C, Okkenhaug K, Finan P, Vanhaesebroeck B

Inflammatory substances released by mast cells induce and maintain the allergic response. Mast cell differentiation and activation are regulated, respectively, by stem cell factor (SCF; also known as Kit ligand) and by allergen in complex with allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Activated SCF receptors and high-affinity receptors for IgE (FcvarepsilonRI) engage phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI(3)Ks) to generate intracellular lipid second messenger signals. Here, we report that genetic or pharmacological inactivation of the p110delta isoform of PI(3)K in mast cells leads to defective SCF-mediated in vitro proliferation, adhesion and migration, and to impaired allergen-IgE-induced degranulation and cytokine release. Inactivation of p110delta protects mice against anaphylactic allergic responses. These results identify p110delta as a new target for therapeutic intervention in allergy and mast-cell-related pathologies.

+ View Abstract

Nature, 431, 1476-4687, 2004

PMID: 15496927

Open Access

Impaired B-1 and B-2 B cell development and atypical splenic B cell structures in IL-7 receptor-deficient mice.
L Erlandsson, S Licence, F Gaspal, S Bell, P Lane, AE Corcoran, IL Mårtensson

The cytokine IL-7 and its receptor are essential for normal B and T lymphopoiesis. We have analyzed the role of this receptor in B cell development throughout ontogeny in IL-7 receptor alpha-deficient mice. We demonstrate that the IL-7 receptor becomes progressively more important with age. B lymphopoiesis takes place, albeit at reduced levels, in fetal liver and bone marrow of young mice, but is arrested in adults. The outcome is a severe reduction, from an early age, in peripheral B cells including follicular, marginal zone and B-1 B cells as well as perturbed splenic B cell structures, which are restored after adoptive transfer of normal spleen cells. We conclude that in the absence of the IL-7 receptor, the residual B lymphopoiesis occurring early in ontogeny must be facilitated by another component, whereas the IL-7 receptor is the key factor in adults. The impairment of marginal zone and B-1 B cells in IL-7 receptor- but not IL-7-deficient mice suggests non-redundant functions for the IL-7 receptor ligands, IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin.

+ View Abstract

European journal of immunology, 34, 12, 2004

PMID: 15495160

Gene dosage--limiting role of Aire in thymic expression, clonal deletion, and organ-specific autoimmunity.
Liston A, Gray DH, Lesage S, Fletcher AL, Wilson J, Webster KE, Scott HS, Boyd RL, Peltonen L, Goodnow CC

Inactivation of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene causes a rare recessive disorder, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome 1 (APS1), but it is not known if Aire-dependent tolerance mechanisms are susceptible to the quantitative genetic changes thought to underlie more common autoimmune diseases. In mice with a targeted mutation, complete loss of Aire abolished expression of an insulin promoter transgene in thymic epithelium, but had no effect in pancreatic islets or the testes. Loss of one copy of Aire diminished thymic expression of the endogenous insulin gene and the transgene, resulting in a 300% increase in islet-reactive CD4 T cells escaping thymic deletion in T cell receptor transgenic mice, and dramatically increased progression to diabetes. Thymic deletion induced by antigen under control of the thyroglobulin promoter was abolished in Aire homozygotes and less efficient in heterozygotes, providing an explanation for thyroid autoimmunity in APS1. In contrast, Aire deficiency had no effect on thymic deletion to antigen controlled by a systemic H-2K promoter. The sensitivity of Aire-dependent thymic deletion to small reductions in function makes this pathway a prime candidate for more subtle autoimmune quantitative trait loci, and suggests that methods to increase Aire activity would be a potent strategy to lower the incidence of organ-specific autoimmunity.

+ View Abstract

The Journal of experimental medicine, 200, 0022-1007, 2004

PMID: 15492124

Open Access

Expression patterns of the novel imprinted genes Nap1l5 and Peg13 and their non-imprinted host genes in the adult mouse brain.
Davies W, Smith RJ, Kelsey G, Wilkinson LS

Recent work has implicated imprinted gene functioning in neurodevelopment and behaviour and defining the expression patterns of these genes in brain tissue has become a key prerequisite to establishing function. In this work we report on the expression patterns of two novel imprinted loci, Nap1l5 and Peg13, in adult mouse brain using in situ hybridisation methods. Nap1l5 and Peg13 are located, respectively, within the introns of the non-imprinted genes Herc3 and the Tularik1 (T1)/KIAA1882 homologue in two separate microimprinted domains on mouse chromosomes 6 and 15. These 'host' genes are highly expressed in brain and consequently we were interested in assessing their expression patterns in parallel to the imprinted genes. The brain expression of all four genes appeared to be mainly neuronal. The detailed expression profiles of Nap1l5 and Peg13 were generally similar with widespread expression that was relatively high in the septal and hypothalamic regions, the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. In contrast, there was some degree of dissociation between the imprinted genes and their non-imprinted hosts, in that, whilst there was again widespread expression of Herc3 and the T1/KIAA1882 homologue, these genes were also particularly highly expressed in Purkinje neurons and piriform cortex. We also examined expression of the novel imprinted genes in the adrenal glands. Nap1l5 expression was localised mainly to the adrenal medulla, whilst Peg13 expression was observed more generally throughout the adrenal medulla and the outer cortical layers.

+ View Abstract

Gene expression patterns : GEP, 4, 1567-133X, 2004

PMID: 15465498

Vav1 and vav3 have critical but redundant roles in mediating platelet activation by collagen.
Pearce AC, Senis YA, Billadeau DD, Turner M, Watson SP, Vigorito E

Vav family proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the Rho/Rac family of small GTP-binding proteins. In addition, they have domains that mediate protein-protein interactions, including one Src homology 2 (SH2) and two Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3 play a crucial role in the regulation of phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma) isoforms by immuno-tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled receptors, including the T- and B-cell antigen receptors. We have reported in platelets, however, that Vav1 and Vav2 are not required for activation of PLC gamma 2 in response to stimulation of the ITAM-coupled collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Here we report that Vav3 is tyrosinephosphorylated upon activation of GPVI but that Vav3-deficient platelets also exhibit a normal response upon activation of the ITAM receptor. In sharp contrast, platelets deficient in both Vav1 and Vav3 show a marked inhibition of aggregation and spreading upon activation of GPVI, which is associated with a reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma 2. The phenotype of Vav1/2/3 triple-deficient platelets is similar to that of Vav1/3 double-deficient cells. These results demonstrate that Vav3 and Vav1 play crucial but redundant roles in the activation of PLC gamma 2 by GPVI. This is the first time that absolute redundancy between two protein isoforms has been observed with respect to the regulation of PLC gamma 2 in platelets.

+ View Abstract

The Journal of biological chemistry, 279, 0021-9258, 2004

PMID: 15456756

Open Access

Fetal growth restriction: a workshop report.
Cetin I, Foidart JM, Miozzo M, Raun T, Jansson T, Tsatsaris V, Reik W, Cross J, Hauguel-de-Mouzon S, Illsley N, Kingdom J, Huppertz B

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with significantly increased perinatal morbidity and mortality as well as cardiovascular disease and glucose intolerance in adult life. A number of disorders from genetic to metabolic, vascular, coagulative, autoimmune, as well as infectious, can influence fetal growth by damaging the placenta, leading to IUGR as a result of many possible fetal, placental and maternal disorders. Strict definitions of IUGR and of its severity are needed in order to eventually distinguish among different phenotypes, such as gestational age at onset, degree of growth restriction and presence of hypoxia. This report explores and reviews some of the most recent developments in both clinical and basic research on intrauterine growth restriction, by seeking mechanisms that involve genetic factors, utero-placental nutrient availability and vascular growth factors. New exciting findings on the genomic imprinting defects potentially associated with IUGR, and the placental anomalies associated with the decreased nutrient transport are summarized. Moreover, recent data on angiogenic growth factors as well as new information arising from application of gene chip technologies are discussed.

+ View Abstract

Placenta, 25, 0143-4004, 0

PMID: 15450396

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates 5-methylcytosine in DNA and is expressed in pluripotent tissues: implications for epigenetic reprogramming.
Morgan HD, Dean W, Coker HA, Reik W, Petersen-Mahrt SK

DNA deaminases of the Aid/Apobec family convert cytosine into uracil and play key roles in acquired and innate immunity. The epigenetic modification by methylation of cytosine in CpG dinucleotides is also mutagenic, but this is thought to occur by spontaneous deamination. Here we show that Aid and Apobec1 are 5-methylcytosine deaminases resulting in a thymine base opposite a guanine. Their action can thus lead to C --> T transition mutations in methylated DNA, or in conjunction with repair of the T:G mismatch, to demethylation. The Aid and Apobec1 genes are located in a cluster of pluripotency genes including Nanog and Stella and are co-expressed with these genes in oocytes, embryonic germ cells, and embryonic stem cells. These results suggest that Aid and perhaps some of its family members may have roles in epigenetic reprogramming and cell plasticity. Transition in CpG dinucleotides is the most frequent mutation in human genetic diseases, and sequence context analysis of CpG transitions in the APC tumor suppressor gene suggests that DNA deaminases may play a significant role in tumor etiology.

+ View Abstract

The Journal of biological chemistry, 279, 0021-9258, 2004

PMID: 15448152

Open Access

Active genes dynamically colocalize to shared sites of ongoing transcription.
CS Osborne, L Chakalova, KE Brown, D Carter, A Horton, E Debrand, B Goyenechea, JA Mitchell, S Lopes, W Reik, P Fraser

The intranuclear position of many genes has been correlated with their activity state, suggesting that migration to functional subcompartments may influence gene expression. Indeed, nascent RNA production and RNA polymerase II seem to be localized into discrete foci or 'transcription factories'. Current estimates from cultured cells indicate that multiple genes could occupy the same factory, although this has not yet been observed. Here we show that, during transcription in vivo, distal genes colocalize to the same transcription factory at high frequencies. Active genes are dynamically organized into shared nuclear subcompartments, and movement into or out of these factories results in activation or abatement of transcription. Thus, rather than recruiting and assembling transcription complexes, active genes migrate to preassembled transcription sites.

+ View Abstract

Nature genetics, 36, 10, 2004

PMID: 15361872

Open Access

Early intermediates of mariner transposition: catalysis without synapsis of the transposon ends suggests a novel architecture of the synaptic complex.
K Lipkow, N Buisine, DJ Lampe, R Chalmers

The mariner family is probably the most widely distributed family of transposons in nature. Although these transposons are related to the well-studied bacterial insertion elements, there is evidence for major differences in their reaction mechanisms. We report the identification and characterization of complexes that contain the Himar1 transposase bound to a single transposon end. Titrations and mixing experiments with the native transposase and transposase fusions suggested that they contain different numbers of transposase monomers. However, the DNA protection footprints of the two most abundant single-end complexes are identical. This indicates that some transposase monomers may be bound to the transposon end solely by protein-protein interactions. This would mean that the Himar1 transposase can dimerize independently of the second transposon end and that the architecture of the synaptic complex has more in common with V(D)J recombination than with bacterial insertion elements. Like V(D)J recombination and in contrast to the case for bacterial elements, Himar1 catalysis does not appear to depend on synapsis of the transposon ends, and the single-end complexes are active for nicking and probably for cleavage. We discuss the role of this single-end activity in generating the mutations that inactivate the vast majority of mariner elements in eukaryotes.

+ View Abstract

Molecular and cellular biology, 24, 18, 2004

PMID: 15340089

Open Access

Promiscuous target interactions in the mariner transposon Himar1.
K Lipkow, N Buisine, R Chalmers

We have previously characterized the early intermediates of mariner transposition. Here we characterize the target interactions that occur later in the reaction. We find that, in contrast to the early transposition intermediates, the strand transfer complex is extremely stable and difficult to disassemble. Transposase is tightly bound to the transposon ends constraining rotation of the DNA at the single strand gaps in the target site flanking the element on either side. We also find that although the cleavage step requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ as cofactor, the strand transfer step is also supported by Ca2+, suggesting that the structure of the active site changes between cleavage and insertion. Finally, we show that, in contrast to the bacterial cut and paste transposons, mariner target interactions are promiscuous and can take place either before or after cleavage of the flanking DNA. This is similar to the behavior of the V(D)J system, which is believed to be derived from an ancestral eukaryotic transposon. We discuss the implications of promiscuous target interactions for promoting local transposition and whether this is an adaptation to facilitate the invasion of a genome following horizontal transfer to a new host species.

+ View Abstract

The Journal of biological chemistry, 279, 47, 2004

PMID: 15333635

Open Access

Vav-dependent and vav-independent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation in murine B cells determined by the nature of the stimulus.
Vigorito E, Bardi G, Glassford J, Lam EW, Clayton E, Turner M

We show in this study that B cell activation following high avidity ligation of IgM or coligation of membrane Ig with CD19 elicits similar levels of Ca(2+) flux using different mechanisms. Each form of activation requires the function of Vav and PI3K. However, Vav regulates Ca(2+) flux independently of PI3K following anti-IgM cross-linking. By contrast, Vav function is essential for PI3K activation following membrane Ig (mIg)/CD19 coligation. Inhibition of PI3K revealed anti-IgM-stimulated Ca(2+) flux has a PI3K-independent component, while Ca(2+) flux following mIg/CD19 coligation is totally PI3K dependent. The p85alpha and p110delta subunits of PI3K both participate in anti-IgM and mIg/CD19 coligation-induced Ca(2+) flux, although the defects are not as severe as observed after pharmacological inhibition. This may reflect the recruitment of additional PI3K subunits, as we found that p110alpha becomes associated with CD19 upon B cell activation. These data show that the nature of the Ag encountered by B cells determines the contribution of Vav proteins to PI3K activation. Our results indicate that the strong signals delivered by multivalent cross-linking agents activate B cells in a qualitatively different manner from those triggered by coreceptor recruitment.

+ View Abstract

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 173, 0022-1767, 2004

PMID: 15322182

Open Access

Sphingosine kinase 1 is an intracellular effector of phosphatidic acid.
C Delon, M Manifava, E Wood, D Thompson, S Krugmann, S Pyne, NT Ktistakis

Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) phosphorylates sphingosine to generate sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Because both substrate and product of the enzyme are potentially important signaling molecules, the regulation of SK1 is of considerable interest. We report that SK1, which is ordinarily a cytosolic enzyme, translocates in vivo and in vitro to membrane compartments enriched in phosphatidic acid (PA), the lipid product of phospholipase D. This translocation depends on direct interaction of SK1 with PA, because recombinant purified enzyme shows strong affinity for pure PA coupled to Affi-Gel. The SK1-PA interaction maps to the C terminus of SK1 and is independent of catalytic activity or of the diacylglycerol kinase-like domain of the enzyme. Thus SK1 constitutes a novel, physiologically relevant PA effector.

+ View Abstract

The Journal of biological chemistry, 279, 43, 2004

PMID: 15310762

Open Access

Radiation-induced malignancies following radiotherapy for breast cancer.
Roychoudhuri R,Evans H,Robinson D,Moller H

With advances in diagnosis and treatment, breast cancer is becoming an increasingly survivable disease resulting in a large population of long-term survivors. Factors affecting the quality of life of such patients include the consequences of breast cancer treatment, which may have involved radiotherapy. In this study, we compare the incidence of second primary cancers in women who received breast radiotherapy with that in those who did not (non-radiotherapy). All women studied received surgery for their first breast cancer. Second cancers of the lung, colon, oesophagus and thyroid gland, malignant melanomas, myeloid leukaemias and second primary breast cancers were studied. Comparing radiotherapy and non-radiotherapy cohorts, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for lung cancer at 10-14 years and 15 or more (15+) years after initial breast cancer diagnosis (RR 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.54 and RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.05-2.14, respectively), and for myeloid leukaemia at 1-5 years (RR 2.99, 95% CI 1.13-9.33), for second breast cancer at 5-10 years (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63) and 15+ years (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.59) and oesophageal cancer at 15+ years (RR 2.19, 95% CI 1.10-4.62).

+ View Abstract

British journal of cancer, 91, 0007-0920, 2004

PMID: 15292931

Open Access

Impaired glucose homeostasis in transgenic mice expressing the human transient neonatal diabetes mellitus locus, TNDM.
Ma D, Shield JP, Dean W, Leclerc I, Knauf C, Burcelin R Ré, Rutter GA, Kelsey G

Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) is a rare inherited diabetic syndrome apparent in the first weeks of life and again during early adulthood. The relative contributions of reduced islet beta cell number and impaired beta cell function to the observed hypoinsulinemia are unclear. The inheritance pattern of this imprinted disorder implicates overexpression of one or both genes within the TNDM locus: ZAC, which encodes a proapoptotic zinc finger protein, and HYMAI, which encodes an untranslated mRNA. To investigate the consequences for pancreatic function, we have developed a high-copy transgenic mouse line, TNDM29, carrying the human TNDM locus. TNDM29 neonates display hyperglycemia, and older adults, impaired glucose tolerance. Neonatal hyperglycemia occurs only on paternal transmission, analogous to paternal dependence of TNDM in humans. Embryonic pancreata of TNDM29 mice showed reductions in expression of endocrine differentiation factors and numbers of insulin-staining structures. By contrast, beta cell mass was normal or elevated at all postnatal stages, whereas pancreatic insulin content in neonates and peak serum insulin levels after glucose infusion in adults were reduced. Expression of human ZAC and HYMAI in these transgenic mice thus recapitulates key features of TNDM and implicates impaired development of the endocrine pancreas and beta cell function in disease pathogenesis.

+ View Abstract

The Journal of clinical investigation, 114, 0021-9738, 2004

PMID: 15286800

Open Access

Interaction between differentially methylated regions partitions the imprinted genes Igf2 and H19 into parent-specific chromatin loops.
Murrell A, Heeson S, Reik W

Imprinted genes are expressed from only one of the parental alleles and are marked epigenetically by DNA methylation and histone modifications. The paternally expressed gene insulin-like growth-factor 2 (Igf2) is separated by approximately 100 kb from the maternally expressed noncoding gene H19 on mouse distal chromosome 7. Differentially methylated regions in Igf2 and H19 contain chromatin boundaries, silencers and activators and regulate the reciprocal expression of the two genes in a methylation-sensitive manner by allowing them exclusive access to a shared set of enhancers. Various chromatin models have been proposed that separate Igf2 and H19 into active and silent domains. Here we used a GAL4 knock-in approach as well as the chromosome conformation capture technique to show that the differentially methylated regions in the imprinted genes Igf2 and H19 interact in mice. These interactions are epigenetically regulated and partition maternal and paternal chromatin into distinct loops. This generates a simple epigenetic switch for Igf2 through which it moves between an active and a silent chromatin domain.

+ View Abstract

Nature genetics, 36, 1061-4036, 2004

PMID: 15273689

The imprinted signaling protein XL alpha s is required for postnatal adaptation to feeding.
Plagge A, Gordon E, Dean W, Boiani R, Cinti S, Peters J, Kelsey G

Genomic imprinting, by which maternal and paternal alleles of some genes have different levels of activity, has profound effects on growth and development of the mammalian fetus. The action of imprinted genes after birth, in particular while the infant is dependent on maternal provision of nutrients, is far less well understood. We disrupted a paternally expressed transcript at the Gnas locus, Gnasxl, which encodes the unusual Gs alpha isoform XL alpha s. Mice with mutations in Gnasxl have poor postnatal growth and survival and a spectrum of phenotypic effects that indicate that XL alpha s controls a number of key postnatal physiological adaptations, including suckling, blood glucose and energy homeostasis. Increased cAMP levels in brown adipose tissue of Gnasxl mutants and phenotypic comparison with Gnas mutants suggest that XL alpha s can antagonize Gs alpha-dependent signaling pathways. The opposing effects of maternally and paternally expressed products of the Gnas locus provide tangible molecular support for the parental-conflict hypothesis of imprinting.

+ View Abstract

Nature genetics, 36, 1061-4036, 2004

PMID: 15273686

PLCgamma2 regulates Bcl-2 levels and is required for survival rather than differentiation of marginal zone and follicular B cells.
Bell SE, Vigorito E, McAdam S, Reynolds HM, Caraux A, Colucci F, Turner M

B cells from phospholipase C (PLC)gamma2-deficient mice express reduced levels of the pro-survival protein Bcl-2 and show a defect in the development of transitional T3 and marginal zone (MZ) B cells that reflects reduced B cell survival. Introduction of a bcl-2 transgene restored the numbers of MZ, T3 and follicular B cells in PLCgamma2(-/-) mice. Restricting the B cell repertoire in PLCgamma2-deficient mice by the introduction of a BCR transgene resulted in a striking reduction in the number of IgM-positive B cells and a paucity of IgD-expressing cells in the spleen which was also rescued by the bcl-2 transgene. BCR-stimulated ERK and IkappaBalpha phosphorylation were PLCgamma2 dependent, while calcium flux was reduced, but not abrogated, in the absence of PLCgamma2, suggesting an ancillary role for PLCgamma1. The bcl-2 transgene rescued development of PLCgamma2(-/-) B cells and serum IgM levels but did not restore BCR-mediated signaling, proliferation or serum IgG3 levels. These data suggest that PLCgamma2 performs a critical role in B cell development through regulation of survival rather than differentiation.

+ View Abstract

European journal of immunology, 34, 0014-2980, 2004

PMID: 15259021

Macrophage release of transforming growth factor beta1 during resolution of monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced inflammation.
DR Yagnik, BJ Evans, O Florey, JC Mason, RC Landis, DO Haskard

It has previously been shown that as monocytes differentiate into macrophages, they lose the ability to secrete proinflammatory cytokines in response to monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MSU crystals induce macrophages to secrete antiinflammatory factor instead.

+ View Abstract

Arthritis and rheumatism, 50, 7, 2004

PMID: 15248227

Open Access

Identification and properties of imprinted genes and their control elements.
Smith RJ, Arnaud P, Kelsey G

Imprinted genes have the unusual characteristic that the copy from one parent is destined to remain inactive. Though few in number they nonetheless constitute a functionally important part of the mammalian genome. With their memory of parental origin, imprinted genes represent an important model for the epigenetic regulation of gene function and will provide invaluable paradigms to test whether we can predict epigenetic state from DNA sequence. Since their first discovery, systematic screens and some good fortune have led to identification of over seventy imprinted genes in the mouse and human: recent microarray analysis may reveal many more. With a significant number of imprinted genes now identified and completion of key mammalian genome sequences, we are able systematically to examine the organization of imprinted loci, properties of their control elements and begin to recognize common themes in imprinted gene regulation.

+ View Abstract

Cytogenetic and genome research, 105, 1424-859X, 2004

PMID: 15237221