Life Sciences Research for Lifelong Health

Publications hayley-sharpe

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Vismodegib resistant mutations are not selected in multifocal relapses of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma after vismodegib discontinuation.
Ighilahriz M, Benfodda M, Sharpe H, Soufir N, Mourah S, Dumaz N, Battistella M, Savina A, Bouquet F, Nikolaev S, Basset-Seguin N

Hedgehog pathway inhibitors (HPI) inactivating SMO , have become first line treatment for patients with locally advanced BCC (laBCC). HPI safety and efficacy have been shown in clinical trials . Nevertheless, common adverse events lead to treatment discontinuation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV, , 1468-3083, , 2019

PMID: 31187903

The homophilic receptor PTPRK selectively dephosphorylates multiple junctional regulators to promote cell-cell adhesion.
Fearnley GW, Young KA, Edgar JR, Antrobus R, Hay IM, Liang WC, Martinez-Martin N, Lin W, Deane JE, Sharpe HJ

Cell-cell communication in multicellular organisms depends on the dynamic and reversible phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues. The receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) receive cues from the extracellular environment and are well placed to influence cell signaling. However, the direct events downstream of these receptors have been challenging to resolve. We report here that the homophilic receptor PTPRK is stabilized at cell-cell contacts in epithelial cells. By combining interaction studies, quantitative tyrosine phosphoproteomics, proximity labeling and dephosphorylation assays we identify high confidence PTPRK substrates. PTPRK directly and selectively dephosphorylates at least five substrates, including Afadin, PARD3 and δ-catenin family members, which are all important cell-cell adhesion regulators. In line with this, loss of PTPRK phosphatase activity leads to disrupted cell junctions and increased invasive characteristics. Thus, identifying PTPRK substrates provides insight into its downstream signaling and a potential molecular explanation for its proposed tumor suppressor function.

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eLife, 8, 2050-084X, , 2019

PMID: 30924770

Open Access

Grking the Smoothened signal.
Sharpe HJ, de Sauvage FJ

The kinase GRK2 has been linked to the clinically important Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway, where it is paradoxically required for signal transduction yet also promotes internalization and degradation of the critical HH signal transducer Smoothened. Two reports by Li and Pusapati in this issue of provide new insights into the role of GRK2 in HH signaling.

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Science signaling, 11, 1937-9145, , 2018

PMID: 29438011

A new trick for an old lipid.
Sharpe H

Cholesterol can regulate the Hedgehog signalling pathway by directly binding to a receptor on the cell surface.

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eLife, 5, 2050-084X, , 2016

PMID: 27885984

Open Access

Genomic analysis identifies new drivers and progression pathways in skin basal cell carcinoma.
Bonilla X, Parmentier L, King B, Bezrukov F, Kaya G, Zoete V, Seplyarskiy VB, Sharpe HJ, McKee T, Letourneau A, Ribaux PG, Popadin K, Basset-Seguin N, Ben Chaabene R, Santoni FA, Andrianova MA, Guipponi M, Garieri M, Verdan C, Grosdemange K, Sumara O, Eilers M, Aifantis I, Michielin O, de Sauvage FJ, Antonarakis SE, Nikolaev SI

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans. BCC is primarily driven by the Sonic Hedgehog (Hh) pathway. However, its phenotypic variation remains unexplained. Our genetic profiling of 293 BCCs found the highest mutation rate in cancer (65 mutations/Mb). Eighty-five percent of the BCCs harbored mutations in Hh pathway genes (PTCH1, 73% or SMO, 20% (P = 6.6 × 10(-8)) and SUFU, 8%) and in TP53 (61%). However, 85% of the BCCs also harbored additional driver mutations in other cancer-related genes. We observed recurrent mutations in MYCN (30%), PPP6C (15%), STK19 (10%), LATS1 (8%), ERBB2 (4%), PIK3CA (2%), and NRAS, KRAS or HRAS (2%), and loss-of-function and deleterious missense mutations were present in PTPN14 (23%), RB1 (8%) and FBXW7 (5%). Consistent with the mutational profiles, N-Myc and Hippo-YAP pathway target genes were upregulated. Functional analysis of the mutations in MYCN, PTPN14 and LATS1 suggested their potential relevance in BCC tumorigenesis.

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Nature genetics, 48, 1546-1718, 398-406, 2016

PMID: 26950094

Open Access

Regulation of the oncoprotein Smoothened by small molecules.
Sharpe HJ, Wang W, Hannoush RN, de Sauvage FJ

The Hedgehog pathway is critical for animal development and has been implicated in multiple human malignancies. Despite great interest in targeting the pathway pharmacologically, many of the principles underlying the signal transduction cascade remain poorly understood. Hedgehog ligands are recognized by a unique receptor system that features the transporter-like protein Patched and the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-like Smoothened (SMO). The biochemical interaction between these transmembrane proteins is the subject of intensive efforts. Recent structural and functional studies have provided great insight into the small-molecule regulation of SMO through identification of two distinct ligand-binding sites. In this Perspective, we review these recent findings and relate them to potential mechanisms for the endogenous regulation of SMO.

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Nature chemical biology, 11, 1552-4469, 246-55, 2015

PMID: 25785427

Genomic analysis of smoothened inhibitor resistance in basal cell carcinoma.
Sharpe HJ, Pau G, Dijkgraaf GJ, Basset-Seguin N, Modrusan Z, Januario T, Tsui V, Durham AB, Dlugosz AA, Haverty PM, Bourgon R, Tang JY, Sarin KY, Dirix L, Fisher DC, Rudin CM, Sofen H, Migden MR, Yauch RL, de Sauvage FJ

Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors are under clinical investigation for the treatment of several cancers. Vismodegib is approved for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Most BCC patients experience significant clinical benefit on vismodegib, but some develop resistance. Genomic analysis of tumor biopsies revealed that vismodegib resistance is associated with Hedgehog (Hh) pathway reactivation, predominantly through mutation of the drug target SMO and to a lesser extent through concurrent copy number changes in SUFU and GLI2. SMO mutations either directly impaired drug binding or activated SMO to varying levels. Furthermore, we found evidence for intra-tumor heterogeneity, suggesting that a combination of therapies targeting components at multiple levels of the Hh pathway is required to overcome resistance.

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Cancer cell, 27, 1878-3686, 327-41, 2015

PMID: 25759019

Open Access

Efficacy of Hedgehog pathway inhibitors in Basal cell carcinoma.
Basset-Seguin N, Sharpe HJ, de Sauvage FJ

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer. While most BCCs are amenable to surgery, some tumors can reach a more advanced stage or metastasize, and become ineligible for surgical resection or radiotherapy. Abnormal activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a key driver in BCC pathophysiology. Consequently, inhibitors of the Hh pathway have been developed. Molecules that inhibit the receptor protein Smoothened (SMO) are the most advanced in clinical development. Vismodegib is the first-in-class SMO inhibitor and has been approved in a number of countries for the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced BCC. Several molecules have demonstrated antitumoral activity, but treatment may be limited in duration by a number of side effects, and it is not yet established whether these agents are truly curative or whether continued treatment will be required. Resistance to SMO inhibition has been reported in the clinic for which incidence and mechanisms must be elucidated to inform future therapeutic strategies. Intermittent dosing regimens to improve tolerability, as well as neoadjuvant use of Hh pathway inhibitors, are currently under investigation. Here, we review the most recent outcomes obtained with Hh inhibitors under clinical investigation in BCC.

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Molecular cancer therapeutics, 14, 1538-8514, 633-41, 2015

PMID: 25585509

A systematic approach to pair secretory cargo receptors with their cargo suggests a mechanism for cargo selection by Erv14.
Herzig Y, Sharpe HJ, Elbaz Y, Munro S, Schuldiner M

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis of secreted and membrane proteins. To exit the ER, proteins are packaged into COPII vesicles through direct interaction with the COPII coat or aided by specific cargo receptors. Despite the fundamental role of such cargo receptors in protein traffic, only a few have been identified; their cargo spectrum is unknown and the signals they recognize remain poorly understood. We present here an approach we term "PAIRS" (pairing analysis of cargo receptors), which combines systematic genetic manipulations of yeast with automated microscopy screening, to map the spectrum of cargo for a known receptor or to uncover a novel receptor for a particular cargo. Using PAIRS we followed the fate of ∼150 cargos on the background of mutations in nine putative cargo receptors and identified novel cargo for most of these receptors. Deletion of the Erv14 cargo receptor affected the widest range of cargo. Erv14 substrates have a wide array of functions and structures; however, they are all membrane-spanning proteins of the late secretory pathway or plasma membrane. Proteins residing in these organelles have longer transmembrane domains (TMDs). Detailed examination of one cargo supported the hypothesis that Erv14 dependency reflects the length rather than the sequence of the TMD. The PAIRS approach allowed us to uncover new cargo for known cargo receptors and to obtain an unbiased look at specificity in cargo selection. Obtaining the spectrum of cargo for a cargo receptor allows a novel perspective on its mode of action. The rules that appear to guide Erv14 substrate recognition suggest that sorting of membrane proteins at multiple points in the secretory pathway could depend on the physical properties of TMDs. Such a mechanism would allow diverse proteins to utilize a few receptors without the constraints of evolving location-specific sorting motifs.

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PLoS biology, 10, 1545-7885, e1001329, 2012

PMID: 22629230

Open Access

Signaling: An oxysterol ligand for Smoothened.
Sharpe HJ, de Sauvage FJ

Nature chemical biology, 8, 1552-4469, 139-40, 2012

PMID: 22257852

A comprehensive comparison of transmembrane domains reveals organelle-specific properties.
Sharpe HJ, Stevens TJ, Munro S

The various membranes of eukaryotic cells differ in composition, but it is at present unclear if this results in differences in physical properties. The sequences of transmembrane domains (TMDs) of integral membrane proteins should reflect the physical properties of the bilayers in which they reside. We used large datasets from both fungi and vertebrates to perform a comprehensive comparison of the TMDs of proteins from different organelles. We find that TMDs are not generic but have organelle-specific properties with a dichotomy in TMD length between the early and late parts of the secretory pathway. In addition, TMDs from post-ER organelles show striking asymmetries in amino acid compositions across the bilayer that is linked to residue size and varies between organelles. The pervasive presence of organelle-specific features among the TMDs of a particular organelle has implications for TMD prediction, regulation of protein activity by location, and sorting of proteins and lipids in the secretory pathway.

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Cell, 142, 1097-4172, 158-69, 2010

PMID: 20603021

Open Access

Sequence-specific intramembrane proteolysis: identification of a recognition motif in rhomboid substrates.
Strisovsky K, Sharpe HJ, Freeman M

Members of the widespread rhomboid family of intramembrane proteases cleave transmembrane domain (TMD) proteins to regulate processes as diverse as EGF receptor signaling, mitochondrial dynamics, and invasion by apicomplexan parasites. However, lack of information about their substrates means that the biological role of most rhomboids remains obscure. Knowledge of how rhomboids recognize their substrates would illuminate their mechanism and might also allow substrate prediction. Previous work has suggested that rhomboid substrates are specified by helical instability in their TMD. Here we demonstrate that rhomboids instead primarily recognize a specific sequence surrounding the cleavage site. This recognition motif is necessary for substrate cleavage, it determines the cleavage site, and it is more strictly required than TM helix-destabilizing residues. Our work demonstrates that intramembrane proteases can be sequence specific and that genome-wide substrate prediction based on their recognition motifs is feasible.

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Molecular cell, 36, 1097-4164, 1048-59, 2009

PMID: 20064469

Open Access

Membrane topology of the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport factor Erv29p.
Foley DA, Sharpe HJ, Otte S

Secretory proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus via COPII-coated intermediates. Yeast Erv29p is a transmembrane protein cycling between these compartments. It is conserved across species, with one ortholog found in each genome studied, including the surf-4 protein in mammals. Yeast Erv29p acts as a receptor, loading a specific subset of soluble cargo, including glycosylated alpha factor pheromone precursor and carboxypeptidase Y, into vesicles. As the eukaryotic secretory pathway is highly conserved, mammalian surf-4 may perform a similar role in the transport of unknown substrates. Here we report the membrane topology of yeast Erv29p, which we solved by minimally invasive cysteine accessibility scanning using thiol-specific biotinylation and fluorescent labeling methods. Erv29p contains four transmembrane domains with both termini exposed to the cytosol. Two luminal loops may contain a recognition site for hydrophobic export signals on soluble cargo.

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Molecular membrane biology, 24, 0968-7688, 259-68, 0

PMID: 17520482

Expression profiles for macrophage alternative activation genes in AD and in mouse models of AD.
Colton CA, Mott RT, Sharpe H, Xu Q, Van Nostrand WE, Vitek MP

Microglia are associated with neuritic plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD) and serve as a primary component of the innate immune response in the brain. Neuritic plaques are fibrous deposits composed of the amyloid beta-peptide fragments (Abeta) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Numerous studies have shown that the immune cells in the vicinity of amyloid deposits in AD express mRNA and proteins for pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to the hypothesis that microglia demonstrate classical (Th-1) immune activation in AD. Nonetheless, the complex role of microglial activation has yet to be fully explored since recent studies show that peripheral macrophages enter an "alternative" activation state.

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Journal of neuroinflammation, 3, 1742-2094, 27, 2006

PMID: 17005052

Open Access