Life Sciences Research for Lifelong Health


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Title / Authors / Details Open Access Download

Analysis of intrathyroidal cytokine production in thyroid autoimmune disease: thyroid follicular cells produce interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-6.
Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Buchan G, Chantry D, Kassal H, Londei M, Pirich K, Barrett K, Turner M, Waldhausl W, Feldmann M

Cytokine production was studied in thyroid tissue from patients with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and non-toxic goitre. The expression of interferon gamma, tumour necrosis factor alpha and beta, interleukin-1 alpha and beta, interleukin-6 and platelet-derived growth factor A chain was assessed by slot-blot analysis of the respective mRNA in freshly isolated tissue samples. All seven cytokines were detected in patients of all groups. Although the respective mRNA levels were, in general, higher in thyroid autoimmune disorders, this appeared to relate to the degree of the lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland at the time of surgery. Purified thyroid follicular cells expressed high levels of interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-6 mRNA and when established in primary culture, purified thyroid follicular cells from Graves' disease as well as non-toxic goitre produced interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-6 bioactivity spontaneously. In the case of interleukin-1 this could be further augmented by addition of lipopolysaccharide to the thyroid follicular cell cultures. These results demonstrate that the lymphocytic infiltrate found in autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroid disorders is associated with cytokine production. Additionally we have shown that intrathyroidal cytokine production is not restricted to thyroid-infiltrating mononuclear cells, but may also involve thyroid follicular cells both in vivo and in vitro. The cytokines produced by thyroid follicular cells may have an important role in stimulating autoantigen specific T cells in vivo as both interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 facilitate T cell activation.

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Clinical and experimental immunology, 77, 0009-9104, 324-30, 1989

PMID: 2680182

Open Access

Structural studies of an acidic galactoglucomannan from the O15 reference strain (C.D.C. 4523-60) of Serratia marcescens.
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

Both neutral and acidic polymers have been isolated from the lipopolysaccharide extract of the reference strain (C.D.C. 4523-60) for Serratia marcescens serogroup O15. By means of n.m.r. spectroscopy, methylation analysis, and studies of degradation products, the acidic polysaccharide was shown to have a branched pentasaccharide repeating-unit with the following structure. (Formula: see text)

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Carbohydrate research, 186, 0008-6215, 295-300, 1989

PMID: 2660988

Tumor necrosis factor mediates autocrine growth inhibition in a chronic leukemia.
Duncombe AS, Heslop HE, Turner M, Meager A, Priest R, Exley T, Brenner MK

Autocrine production of growth factors may contribute to the rapid and fatal proliferation of acute hematologic malignancies. We have investigated whether the more controlled growth of less aggressive malignancies such as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) may be associated with autocrine production of growth inhibitory factors. TNF inhibits the growth of both normal and leukemic hemopoietic progenitor cells. We find that exogenous TNF reduces the viability and DNA synthesis of purified myeloid cells from patients with CML and inhibits myeloid colony formation by patient progenitor cells. However, unlike progenitor cells from normal donors, patient myeloid progenitor cells also constitutively express mRNA for TNF and secrete functional TNF protein in culture. This endogenous TNF impedes the growth of CML cells because anti-TNF mAb shown to neutralize bioactive human TNF increases CML cell DNA synthesis whereas non-neutralizing anti-TNF mAb has no effect. Production of TNF by CML cells is not associated with production of lymphotoxin (TNF-beta), IL-1 or IL-6. TNF-mediated autocrine growth inhibition may contribute to the maintenance of the stable, chronic phase of this disease and similar mechanisms may operate in other malignancies to limit tumor proliferation. Competition between autocrine growth promoting and inhibiting factors may underlie the observed differences in biologic behavior between acute and chronic malignancies.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 143, 0022-1767, 3828-34, 1989

PMID: 2584719

Modulation of cytokine production by transforming growth factor-beta.
Chantry D, Turner M, Abney E, Feldmann M

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is one of a family of polypeptides involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. The effects of human rTGF-beta 1 on the production of IL-1 and TNF by activated PBMC were studied. The addition of TGF-beta 1 alone caused an increase in the levels of mRNA for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and TGF-alpha. This was due to increased transcription rather than enhanced mRNA stability. The induced mRNA were of the appropriate size as assessed by Northern blotting. However, the mRNA did not appear to be translated into protein, inasmuch as the translation products of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha were not detected by RIA or ELISA. Furthermore, in experiments utilizing a neutralizing antibody to TGF-beta 1, we were unable to unmask IL-1 biologic activities and unable to detect TNF biologic activity in the WEHI 164 cytotoxicity assay. TGF-beta inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the induction of IL-1 beta by LPS or TNF but not by PHA and PMA. Similarly, LPS induction of TNF-alpha was blocked by TGF-beta, whereas induction of PMA and PHA was completely resistant. TGF-beta 1 did not increase PGE2 secretion or cause elevated intracellular cAMP; thus, the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta 1 seem not to be mediated by PGE2 or cAMP, which have both been implicated in post-transcriptional control of cytokine gene expression. These findings suggest a dual role for TGF-beta 1 in the regulation of cytokine production at both transcriptional and translational levels.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 142, 0022-1767, 4295-300, 1989

PMID: 2542408

[Cancer of the gallbladder].
Colombo C, Nobili P, Giussani GA, Crosta C, Ronchi O, Alloni R

The Authors report their experience about 20 patients operated on since 1975 for primary carcinoma of the gallbladder. They remark their disappointment because of the poor percentage of preoperative and early diagnosis, that only allows a radical surgical therapy. More attention, therefore, should be payed to this not so rare pathology in the hope the survival of the patients radically operated will increase.

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Il Giornale di chirurgia, 10, 0391-9005, 567-71, 1989

PMID: 2518295

Open Access

Regulation of expression of human IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta genes.
Turner M, Chantry D, Buchan G, Barrett K, Feldmann M

IL-1 gene expression was investigated in human blood mononuclear cells. IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA were induced with LPS or TNF. Kinetic measurements on Northern blots revealed that these stimuli elicited qualitatively similar changes in IL-1 mRNA levels, and that expression of IL-1 mRNA was transient. IL-1 beta mRNA was the predominant mRNA species and remained elevated for somewhat longer than IL-1 alpha mRNA. TNF and IFN-gamma synergized to induce both species of IL-1 mRNA and IL-1 bioactivity. Transcriptional control, as measured by nuclear run on assays, partly determines the greater levels of IL-1 beta mRNA because the rate of IL-1 beta transcription was greater than that of IL-1 alpha. Cycloheximide (CHX) was able to induce IL-1 mRNA but did not induce transcription of either IL-1 gene. When added to cultures pretreated with TNF or LPS, CHX superinduced IL-1 mRNA, but IL-1 transcription was not increased. If added simultaneously CHX blocked TNF-induced IL-1 gene transcription, suggesting that TNF may induce factors required for IL-1 gene transcription. CHX increased the stability of both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA, demonstrating the existence of a post-transcriptional form of control. In half-life experiments IL-1 beta mRNA was more stable than IL-1 alpha mRNA, indicating that post-transcriptional control also contributes to the greater steady state levels of IL-1 beta. Taken together, the available evidence suggests IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA are regulated differentially at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 143, 0022-1767, 3556-61, 1989

PMID: 2511244

Effect of cytokines on HLA-DR and IL-1 production by a monocytic tumour, THP-1.
Portillo G, Turner M, Chantry D, Feldmann M

The monocytic tumour, THP-1, expresses many of the properties of monocytes, both by cell surface staining and its capacity to produce monokines. It was used as a source of homogenous monocytic cells as a model to determine whether a variety of highly purified or recombinant cytokines could induce HLA-DR expression and the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1). Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) alone induced HLA-DR. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin (LT) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) alone were able to induce IL-1 but not HLA-DR. When IFN-gamma was combined with TNF, induction of HLA-DR and IL-1 was enhanced in a synergistic manner. These effects were detectable at a pretranslational level as synergistic effects were observed on DR alpha mRNA and IL-1 beta mRNA levels. The results demonstrate the specificity of IFN-gamma as the inductive stimulus for HLA-DR expression by THP-1 cells. As IFN-gamma and TNF are products of activated T cells, the synergistic role for these molecules in macrophage activation is discussed.

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Immunology, 66, 0019-2805, 170-5, 1989

PMID: 2494105

Open Access

Structural studies of a neutral polymer (the putative O10 antigen) isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of Serratia marcescens strain C.D.C. 1287-54 (O10:H8).
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

A neutral glucorhamnan has been isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of the O10 reference strain (C.D.C. 1287-54) of Serratia marcescens. By means of n.m.r. spectroscopy, methylation analysis, and degradative studies, the polymer (the putative O-specific antigen) was found to have the branched, pentasaccharide repeating-unit shown. (formula; see text).

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Carbohydrate research, 187, 0008-6215, 303-11, 1989

PMID: 2472885

Structural studies of an acidic galactoglucomannan from the O3 reference strain (C.D.C. 863-57) of Serratia marcescens.
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

A partially acetylated acidic galactoglucomannan has been isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of the O3 reference strain (C.D.C. 863-57) of Serratia marcescens. By means of n.m.r. spectroscopy, methylation analysis, and degradative studies, the polymer was found to have the branched pentasaccharide repeating-unit shown. The position(s) of partial acetylation were not determined. Although the polymer is believed to confer O specificity on the parent organism, it is probably not an integral component of the lipopolysaccharide. (Formula: see text).

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Carbohydrate research, 187, 0008-6215, 295-301, 1989

PMID: 2472884

Excessive production of interleukin 6/B cell stimulatory factor-2 in rheumatoid arthritis.
Hirano T, Matsuda T, Turner M, Miyasaka N, Buchan G, Tang B, Sato K, Shimizu M, Maini R, Feldmann M

High levels of interleukin 6 (IL 6/B cell stimulatory factor-2) were detected in synovial fluids from the joints of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The cells found in freshly isolated synovial fluid constitutively expressed IL 6 mRNA. The synovial tissues obtained by joint biopsy were also found to produce IL 6 in vitro. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that CD2+ T cells as well as CD20+ blastoid B cells in the synovial tissues produce IL 6. The data indicate that IL 6 is generated constitutively in RA and its overproduction may explain the local as well as the generalized symptoms of RA, since IL 6 can function as B cell growth and differentiation factor as well as hepatocyte-stimulating factor.

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European journal of immunology, 18, 0014-2980, 1797-801, 1988

PMID: 2462501

Open Access

Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of Serratia marcescens O8.
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

Structural studies have been carried out on the O-specific polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of the reference strain (CDC 1604-55) for serogroup O8 of Serratia marcescens. The polymer has a branched, tetrasaccharide repeating unit of D-galactose(Gal),D-glucose(Glc), and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose(GlcNAc) with the following structure: (Formula: see text). The anomeric configuration assigned to the glucose residue differs from that (beta) previously proposed [Tarcsay, L., Wang, C. S., Li, S.-C. and Alaupovic, P. (1973) Biochemistry 12, 1948-1955]. The structure of the O8 polymer is identical with that of one of two polymers present in the cell envelope of a strain (CDC 1783-57) of S. marcescens O14.

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European journal of biochemistry / FEBS, 156, 0014-2956, 597-601, 1986

PMID: 2422032

Structure of a neutral glycan isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of the reference strain for Serratia marcescens serogroup O22.
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

Both a neutral and an acidic polymer have been isolated from a lipopolysaccharide extract of the reference strain for Serratia marcescens serogroup O22. The neutral polymer has a linear structure with the repeating unit shown. The same tetrasaccharide unit also forms the backbone of the branched neutral polymer isolated from the reference strain for serogroup O10, which cross-reacts strongly with O22. ----2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1----2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1----3)-alpha-L-+ ++Rhap-(1----3)-alpha- D-GlcpNAc-(1----

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Carbohydrate research, 203, 0008-6215, 247-51, 1990

PMID: 2276124

Effects of interferon alpha on autocrine growth factor loops in B lymphoproliferative disorders.
Heslop HE, Bianchi AC, Cordingley FT, Turner M, Chandima W, De Mel CP, Hoffbrand AV, Brenner MK

The B lymphoproliferative disorders B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and hairy cell leukemia (HCL) produce a number of autocrine growth factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-1, all of which may induce positive feedback growth loops. If such malignancies depend on these autocrine growth loops for survival, their interruption may be therapeutically valuable. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) abrogates TNF- or IL-6-induced proliferation of HCL and B-CLL cells in vitro and has therapeutic activity in these diseases. We have investigated the possibility that IFN-alpha may act by interrupting autocrine growth factor loops. If purified B-CLL or HCL cells are cultured in the presence of TNF, there is induction of mRNA for TNF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. However, culture in the presence of IFN-alpha in addition to TNF reduced the level of mRNA for all these cytokines, compared with cells cultured in TNF alone. While cytokine mRNA levels were diminished, levels of mRNA for the ribonuclease activator 2-5A synthetase were increased. Analysis of the kinetics of cytokine mRNA production showed that levels fall shortly after the rise of 2-5A synthetase mRNA. IFN-alpha may produce these effects by shortening the half-life of cytokine mRNA, since TNF mRNA half-life in B-CLL and HCL cells is substantially reduced when the cells are cultured with IFN-alpha. These data suggest that IFN-alpha may mediate its therapeutic effects in these malignancies by blocking autocrine growth factor loops.

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The Journal of experimental medicine, 172, 0022-1007, 1729-34, 1990

PMID: 2258703

Open Access

Detection of interleukin 8 biological activity in synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and production of interleukin 8 mRNA by isolated synovial cells.
Brennan FM, Zachariae CO, Chantry D, Larsen CG, Turner M, Maini RN, Matsushima K, Feldmann M

The presence of neutrophils in the synovial joint of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is thought to be due to the activity of chemotactic factors released by activated cells in the joint. We have shown in this report, for the first time, the abundance of one such factor, interleukin 8 (IL 8), in the synovial fluid of patients both with RA and other non-RA joint diseases, and the spontaneous production of IL 8 mRNA by RA synovial cells in culture. There was no correlation between the levels of chemotactic activity and IL 8 protein, suggesting that other factors with similar neutrophil chemotactic activity are also present in the synovial fluid exudate. In support of this concept neither the level of chemotactic activity nor IL 8 protein levels correlated with neutrophil or leukocyte infiltration, indicating that the mechanism of migration into the inflammatory environment of the joint is complex. Such migration is likely to be due to a number of chemotactic signals in addition to IL 8, which may either synergize with, or inhibit, the action of IL 8.

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European journal of immunology, 20, 0014-2980, 2141-4, 1990

PMID: 2209707

Open Access

Detection of transforming growth factor-beta in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue: lack of effect on spontaneous cytokine production in joint cell cultures.
Brennan FM, Chantry D, Turner M, Foxwell B, Maini R, Feldmann M

The presence of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in inflammatory joint disease was investigated. Synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and patients with other non-autoimmune inflammatory joint diseases contained high levels of both active and latent TGF-beta. Levels of active TGF-beta did not correlate with drug regimen in either patient group or with the recovery period in the individuals with non-RA joint disease. Freshly isolated synovial cells from individuals with RA were shown by Northern blotting to express the mRNA for TGF-beta 1 and to secrete latent TGF-beta protein which could be neutralized by antibodies to TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal donors produced interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) which was inhibited by pretreatment of these cells with recombinant TGF-beta. Cytokine production was not inhibited if the addition of TGF-beta was used after the inducing stimulus, suggesting that in activated cells cytokine production cannot be inhibited. This was confirmed by the observation that neither TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2 inhibited spontaneous IL-1 or TNF-alpha production by rheumatoid synovial mononuclear cells in culture. These findings show that despite the presence of active TGF-beta in RA synovial joints and the spontaneous production of latent (potentially active) TGF-beta by RA cells in culture, additional TGF-beta did not inhibit ongoing cytokine synthesis in vitro. This suggests that TGF-beta may not inhibit cytokine production in the rheumatoid joint although it cannot be ruled out that in vivo TGF-beta already has an immunosuppressive effect which cannot be further increased in vitro by exogenous protein.

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Clinical and experimental immunology, 81, 0009-9104, 278-85, 1990

PMID: 2201470

Open Access

A common structure for neutral polymers isolated from the lipopolysaccharides of reference strains for Serratia marcescens serogroups O17 and O19.
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

Carbohydrate research, 198, 0008-6215, 168-72, 1990

PMID: 2191776

Cloning of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor cDNA and expression of recombinant soluble TNF-binding protein.
Gray PW, Barrett K, Chantry D, Turner M, Feldmann M

The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNF alpha with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surface proteins that includes the nerve growth factor receptor, the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, and the rat T-cell surface antigen OX40. The TNF receptor contains four cysteine-rich subdomains in the extracellular portion. Mammalian cells transfected with the entire TNF receptor cDNA bind radiolabeled TNF alpha with an affinity of 2.5 x 10(-9) M. This binding can be competitively inhibited with unlabeled TNF alpha or lymphotoxin (TNF beta).

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 87, 0027-8424, 7380-4, 1990

PMID: 2170974

Open Access

Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor induces both HLA-DR expression and cytokine production by human monocytes.
Chantry D, Turner M, Brennan F, Kingsbury A, Feldmann M

The effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the expression of HLA-DR, and the production of the cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) by human peripheral blood monocyte-enriched populations was investigated. GM-CSF was shown to induce both the expression of HLA-DR and the cytokines IL-1 and TNF alpha in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which induced major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, did not induce IL-1 or TNF alpha production. However, IFN-gamma enhanced the cell surface expression of HLA-DR and the production of IL-1 and TNF alpha on monocyte-enriched cells stimulated by GM-CSF. By itself, GM-CSF did not induce surface class II expression on the human monocytic tumour cell line THP-1, whereas it synergized with IFN-gamma to induce surface expression. These cells responded to GM-CSF by producing IL-1 and TNF alpha; Northern blotting showed that mRNA levels of IL-1 and TNF alpha were transiently induced, similar to other cytokines. Our results indicate that GM-CSF is a major macrophage activating factor that is capable of inducing both the expression of HLA-DR and the cytokines involved in T-cell activation by macrophages; therefore, GM-CSF may be of importance in potentiating antigen presenting function.

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Cytokine, 2, 1043-4666, 60-7, 1990

PMID: 2129500

Open Access

Transforming growth factor beta induces the production of interleukin 6 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Turner M, Chantry D, Feldmann M

Previous studies have indicated that the cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) has immunosuppressive properties and can inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and Interleukin 1 (IL 1) by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In this study, we have examined the effects of TGF beta 1 on the production of Interleukin 6 (IL 6) by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Treatment with only TGF beta 1 leads to the induction of IL 6, and this was both dose- and time-dependent. The effect of TGF beta 1 was evident at the level of IL 6 mRNA, suggesting TGF beta 1-induced de novo synthesis of IL 6. Induction of IL 6 by TGF beta 1 was specific, as other cytokines made by mononuclear cells (TNF and IL 1) were not induced by TGF beta 1. Furthermore, when a panel of stimuli were compared for their ability to induce IL 1, TNF and IL 6 in the presence or absence of TGF beta 1, IL 6 levels were augmented in the presence of TGF beta 1, while the induction of IL 1 and TNF was inhibited significantly. These results indicate that TGF beta 1 has complex effects on the production of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and that TGF beta 1 is not inhibitory for all cytokine production. The ability of TGF beta 1 to induce IL 6 suggests that IL 6 may mediate some of the effects of TGF beta 1.

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Cytokine, 2, 1043-4666, 211-6, 1990

PMID: 2104224

Open Access

Interleukin 7 and interleukin 4 stimulate human thymocyte growth through distinct mechanisms.
Varma C, Chantry D, Brennan F, Turner M, Katz F, Feldmann M

One of the major functions of cytokines is their ability to regulate cell growth and differentiation. The complexity of this process has been highlighted by recent studies on murine thymocytes; it has been shown that a number of cytokines interact to regulate thymocyte growth. We have investigated the effects of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 7 (IL-7) on human thymocyte proliferation. Although maximal proliferation was dependent upon the presence of the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), IL-7 alone stimulated thymocyte growth. In order to determine if this proliferation was due to the induction of IL-2, this pathway was inhibited by the addition of blocking antibody to the IL-2 receptor. Proliferation induced with IL-7 plus PHA, but not that induced by IL-7 alone, could be blocked by this treatment. In contrast, IL-4 stimulated thymocyte proliferation only in the presence of PHA; this proliferation was not inhibited by antibodies to the IL-2 receptor. Our findings show that both IL-7 and IL-4 can act as growth factors for human thymocytes, and that these cytokines stimulate proliferation through distinct mechanisms.

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Cytokine, 2, 1043-4666, 55-9, 1990

PMID: 2104214

Open Access

Production of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 by human keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.
Partridge M, Chantry D, Turner M, Feldmann M

Cultured human keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines were analyzed for the presence of ribonucleic acid (RNA) transcripts for the cytokines interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 and for these proteins. This study demonstrates that both cytokines are synthesized and secreted by both normal keratinocytes and SCC lines. The rate of secretion of these cytokines can be augmented in response to a variety of stimuli including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, transforming growth factor-beta and the combination of lipopolysaccharide and phorbol myristate acetate. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 have been reported to influence the proliferation of cultured human fibroblasts. However, these cytokines had no significant effect on the proliferation of human keratinocytes or the SCC lines tested. Although it seems unlikely that interleukin-1 or interleukin-6 could directly influence keratinocyte proliferation in vivo, the capacity of these cells to synthesize and release these cytokines supports earlier observations that keratinocytes may play an important role in augmenting an immune or inflammatory response.

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The Journal of investigative dermatology, 96, 0022-202X, 771-6, 1991

PMID: 2022885

Open Access

Structural studies of acidic polymers produced by the O23 reference strain of Serratia marcescens: presence of amide-linked glutamic acid.
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

The major fraction of an acidic galactoglucomannan present in lipopolysaccharide extracts from cell walls of the O23 reference strain of Serratia marcescens has the tetrasaccharide repeating-unit shown. In a minor fraction, L-glutamic acid was amide-linked to about half of the D-glucuronic acid residues. The possible contributions of the acidic polymers and a neutral polymer produced by the organism to cross-reactions with other serogroups are discussed.

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Carbohydrate research, 204, 0008-6215, 85-91, 1990

PMID: 1980630

CD4+ T-cell clones from autoimmune thyroid tissue cannot be classified according to their lymphokine production.
Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Turner M, Pirich K, Kassal H, Londei M, Waldhäusl W, Feldmann M

In order to define whether CD4+ T cells from autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroid tissue could be classified according to their mediator production, lymphokine production was studied in 63 thyroid-derived CD4+ T-cell clones from four patients with Graves' disease, one with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and one with non-toxic goitre (9-12 clones per patient). The production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), lymphotoxin (LT), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) was assessed at the mRNA level by slot-blot analysis in unstimulated clones as well as after activation with monoclonal anti-CD3 (OKT3) and IL-2. No lymphokine production was found in unstimulated clones, whereas 56% of the clones produced all six lymphokines simultaneously after stimulation. In the remaining 44% usually not more than one lymphokine was missing from the complete panel. Lymphokine mRNA concentrations varied between different clones and different patients, but, in this small sample, not between the diseases from which the clones were originated. There was a significant correlation between IL-6, LT, and IL-2 mRNA levels and T-cell helper function, which was estimated by the stimulation of thyroid microsomal autoantibody production using autologous peripheral B cells. TGF-beta and IFN-gamma mRNA expression was unrelated to T-cell help. The results demonstrate that intrathyroid T cells from autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroid disorders cannot be classified according to their lymphokine production, unlike some results with in vitro-induced mouse T-cell clones, where two populations, Th1 and Th2, have been described. Single T cells are capable of producing a whole panel of lymphokines and thus are capable of triggering a multitude of different processes.

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Scandinavian journal of immunology, 32, 0300-9475, 433-40, 1990

PMID: 1980155

Structure of a mannan isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of the reference strain (S3255) for a new serogroup of Serratia marcescens.
Oxley D,Wilkinson SG

Both a neutral and an acidic polymer have been isolated from a lipopolysaccharide extract of Serratia marcescens strain S3255. The neutral polymer is a linear mannan with the repeating unit shown. The same repeating unit has been described for the O-specific polymers from Escherichia coli O8 and Klebsiella O5.

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Carbohydrate research, 212, 0008-6215, 213-7, 1991

PMID: 1959117

Induction of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein by transforming growth factor-beta.
Turner M, Chantry D, Katsikis P, Berger A, Brennan FM, Feldmann M

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) mediates many immunosuppressive effects on immune cells and can inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 (IL 1). However, TGF-beta 1 can stimulate the production of IL 6 and platelet-derived growth factor, indicating that TGF-beta 1 initiates complex effects on the production of cytokines. In this report we show that treatment of peripheral blood monocytes with TGF-beta 1 leads to the induction of a recently described IL 1 receptor antagonist protein (IRAP). The effect of TGF-beta 1 was both dose and time dependent. TGF-beta 1 induced de novo synthesis of IRAP, as Northern blotting experiments indicated a rapid and transient induction of the mRNA encoding IRAP. The induction of IRAP suggests a potential mechanism by which some of the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta 1 are mediated.

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European journal of immunology, 21, 0014-2980, 1635-9, 1991

PMID: 1829411

Open Access