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Update on LIPID MAPS classification, nomenclature, and shorthand notation for MS-derived lipid structures.
Liebisch G, Fahy E, Aoki J, Dennis EA, Durand T, Ejsing CS, Fedorova M, Feussner I, Griffiths WJ, Köfeler H, Merrill AH, Murphy RC, O'Donnell VB, Oskolkova O, Subramaniam S, Wakelam MJO, Spener F

A comprehensive and standardized system to report lipid structures analyzed by MS is essential for the communication and storage of lipidomics data. Herein, an update on both the LIPID MAPS classification system and shorthand notation of lipid structures is presented for lipid categories Fatty Acyls (FA), Glycerolipids (GL), Glycerophospholipids (GP), Sphingolipids (SP), and Sterols (ST). With its major changes, i.e., annotation of ring double bond equivalents and number of oxygens, the updated shorthand notation facilitates reporting of newly delineated oxygenated lipid species as well. For standardized reporting in lipidomics, the hierarchical architecture of shorthand notation reflects the diverse structural resolution powers provided by mass spectrometric assays. Moreover, shorthand notation is expanded beyond mammalian phyla to lipids from plant and yeast phyla. Finally, annotation of atoms is included for the use of stable isotope-labeled compounds in metabolic labeling experiments or as internal standards. This update on lipid classification, nomenclature, and shorthand annotation for lipid mass spectra is considered a standard for lipid data presentation.

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Journal of lipid research, 61, 12, , Dec 2020


Potential Role of Oral Rinses Targeting the Viral Lipid Envelope in SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
O'Donnell VB, Thomas D, Stanton R, Maillard JY, Murphy RC, Jones SA, Humphreys I, Wakelam MJO, Fegan C, Wise MP, Bosch A, Sattar SA

Emerging studies increasingly demonstrate the importance of the throat and salivary glands as sites of virus replication and transmission in early COVID-19 disease. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus, characterized by an outer lipid membrane derived from the host cell from which it buds. While it is highly sensitive to agents that disrupt lipid biomembranes, there has been no discussion about the potential role of oral rinsing in preventing transmission. Here, we review known mechanisms of viral lipid membrane disruption by widely available dental mouthwash components that include ethanol, chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and povidone-iodine. We also assess existing formulations for their potential ability to disrupt the SARS-CoV-2 lipid envelope, based on their concentrations of these agents, and conclude that several deserve clinical evaluation. We highlight that already published research on other enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses, directly supports the idea that oral rinsing should be considered as a potential way to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Research to test this could include evaluating existing or specifically tailored new formulations in well-designed viral inactivation assays, then in clinical trials. Population-based interventions could be undertaken with available mouthwashes, with active monitoring of outcome to determine efficacy. This is an under-researched area of major clinical need.

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Function (Oxford, England), 1, 1, , 2020


Open Access

Steps Towards Minimal Reporting Standards for Lipidomics Mass Spectrometry in Biomedical Research Publications.
O'Donnell VB, FitzGerald GA, Murphy RC, Liebisch G, Dennis EA, Quehenberger O, Subramaniam S, Wakelam MJO

None listed

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Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine, 1, 1, , 16 Nov 2020


Update on LIPID MAPS Classification, Nomenclature and Shorthand Notation for MS-derived Lipid Structures.
Liebisch G, Fahy E, Aoki J, Dennis EA, Durand T, Ejsing C, Fedorova M, Feussner I, Griffiths WJ, Koefeler H, Merrill AH, Murphy RC, O'Donnell VB, Oskolkova OV, Subramaniam S, Wakelam M, Spener F

A comprehensive and standardized system to report lipid structures analyzed by mass spectrometry is essential for the communication and storage of lipidomics data. Herein, an update on both the LIPID MAPS classification system and shorthand notation of lipid structures is presented for lipid categories Fatty Acyls (FA), Glycerolipids (GL), Glycerophospholipids (GP), Sphingolipids (SP), and Sterols (ST). With its major changes, i.e. annotation of ring double bond equivalents and number of oxygens, the updated shorthand notation facilitates reporting of newly delineated oxygenated lipid species as well. For standardized reporting in lipidomics, the hierarchical architecture of shorthand notation reflects the diverse structural resolution powers provided by mass spectrometric assays. Moreover, shorthand notation is expanded beyond mammalian phyla to lipids from plant and yeast phyla. Finally, annotation of atoms is included for the use of stable isotope-labelled compounds in metabolic labelling experiments or as internal standards.This update on lipid classification, nomenclature and shorthand annotation for lipid mass spectra is considered a standard for lipid data presentation.

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Journal of lipid research, 1, 1, , 09 Oct 2020


THP-1 macrophage cholesterol efflux is impaired by palmitoleate through Akt activation.
Marshall JD, Courage ER, Elliott RF, Fitzpatrick MN, Kim AD, Lopez-Clavijo AF, Woolfrey BA, Ouimet M, Wakelam MJO, Brown RJ

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and it may promote the progression of atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms behind this process are not completely understood. We previously showed that the phosphorylation of Akt within THP-1 macrophages is increased in response to the lipid hydrolysis products generated by LPL from total lipoproteins. Notably, the free fatty acid (FFA) component was responsible for this effect. In the present study, we aimed to reveal more detail as to how the FFA component may affect Akt signalling. We show that the phosphorylation of Akt within THP-1 macrophages increases with total FFA concentration and that phosphorylation is elevated up to 18 hours. We further show that specifically the palmitoleate component of the total FFA affects Akt phosphorylation. This is tied with changes to the levels of select molecular species of phosphoinositides. We further show that the total FFA component, and specifically palmitoleate, reduces apolipoprotein A-I-mediated cholesterol efflux, and that the reduction can be reversed in the presence of the Akt inhibitor MK-2206. Overall, our data support a negative role for the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL, by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux via Akt activation.

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PloS one, 15, 5, , 2020

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233180

Open Access

MYC regulates fatty acid metabolism through a multigenic program in claudin-low triple negative breast cancer.
Casciano JC, Perry C, Cohen-Nowak AJ, Miller KD, Vande Voorde J, Zhang Q, Chalmers S, Sandison ME, Liu Q, Hedley A, McBryan T, Tang HY, Gorman N, Beer T, Speicher DW, Adams PD, Liu X, Schlegel R, McCarron JG, Wakelam MJO, Gottlieb E, Kossenkov AV, Schug ZT

Recent studies have suggested that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a key metabolic pathway for the growth of triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), particularly those that have high expression of MYC. However, the underlying mechanism by which MYC promotes FAO remains poorly understood.

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British journal of cancer, 1, 1, , 16 Jan 2020

DOI: 10.1038/s41416-019-0711-3

Mammalian phospholipase D: Function, and therapeutics.
McDermott MI, Wang Y, Wakelam MJO, Bankaitis VA

Despite being discovered over 60 years ago, the precise role of Phospholipase D (PLD) is still being elucidated. PLD enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of glycerophospholipids producing phosphatidic acid and the free headgroup. PLD family members are found in organisms ranging from viruses, and bacteria to plants, and mammals, and they display a range of substrate specificities, are regulated by a diverse range of molecules, and have been implicated in a broad range of cellular processes including receptor signaling, cytoskeletal regulation and membrane trafficking. Recent technological advances including: the development of PLD knockout mice, isoform-specific antibodies, and specific inhibitors are finally permitting a thorough analysis of the in vivo role of mammalian PLDs. These studies are facilitating increased recognition of PLD's role in disease states including cancers and Alzheimer's disease, offering potential as a target for therapeutic intervention.

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Progress in lipid research, 0, 0, , 09 Dec 2019

DOI: 10.1016/j.plipres.2019.101018

A nutritional memory effect counteracts benefits of dietary restriction in old mice.
Hahn O, Drews LF, Nguyen A, Tatsuta T, Gkioni L, Hendrich O, Zhang Q, Langer T, Pletcher S, Wakelam MJO, Beyer A, Grönke S, Partridge L

Dietary restriction (DR) during adulthood can greatly extend lifespan and improve metabolic health in diverse species. However, whether DR in mammals is still effective when applied for the first time at old age remains elusive. Here, we report results of a late-life DR switch experiment employing 800 mice, in which 24 months old female mice were switched from ad libitum (AL) to DR or vice versa. Strikingly, the switch from DR-to-AL acutely increases mortality, whereas the switch from AL-to-DR causes only a weak and gradual increase in survival, suggesting a memory of earlier nutrition. RNA-seq profiling in liver, brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) demonstrate a largely refractory transcriptional and metabolic response to DR after AL feeding in fat tissue, particularly in WAT, and a proinflammatory signature in aged preadipocytes, which is prevented by chronic DR feeding. Our results provide evidence for a nutritional memory as a limiting factor for DR-induced longevity and metabolic remodeling of WAT in mammals.

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Nature metabolism, 1, 11, , Nov 2019

DOI: 10.1038/s42255-019-0121-0

Lipidomics: Current state of the art in a fast moving field.
O'Donnell VB, Ekroos K, Liebisch G, Wakelam M

Lipids are essential for all facets of life. They play three major roles: energy metabolism, structural, and signaling. They are dynamic molecules strongly influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors including genetics, diet, age, lifestyle, drugs, disease and inflammation. As precision medicine starts to become mainstream, there is a huge burgeoning interest in lipids and their potential to act as unique biomarkers or prognostic indicators. Lipids comprise a large component of all metabolites (around one-third), and our expanding knowledge about their dynamic behavior is fueling the hope that mapping their regulatory biochemical pathways on a systems level will revolutionize our ability to prevent, diagnose, and stratify major human diseases. Up to now, clinical lipid measurements have consisted primarily of total cholesterol or triglycerides, as a measure for cardiovascular risk and response to lipid lowering drugs. Nowadays, we are able to measure thousands of individual lipids that make up the lipidome. nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) metabolomics is also being increasingly used in large cohort studies where it can report on total levels of selected lipid classes, and relative levels of fatty acid saturation. To support the application of lipidomics research, LIPID MAPS was established in 2003, and since then has gone on to become the go-to resource for several lipid databases, lipid drawing tools, data deposition, and more recently lipidomics informatics tools, and a lipid biochemistry encyclopedia, LipidWeb. Alongside this, the recently established Lipidomics Standards Initiative plays a key role in standardization of lipidomics methodologies. This article is categorized under: Laboratory Methods and Technologies > Metabolomics Analytical and Computational Methods > Analytical Methods.

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Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Systems biology and medicine, , 1939-005X, , 2019


The circadian clock components BMAL1 and REV-ERBα regulate flavivirus replication.
Zhuang X, Magri A, Hill M, Lai AG, Kumar A, Rambhatla SB, Donald CL, Lopez-Clavijo AF, Rudge S, Pinnick K, Chang WH, Wing PAC, Brown R, Qin X, Simmonds P, Baumert TF, Ray D, Loudon A, Balfe P, Wakelam M, Butterworth S, Kohl A, Jopling CL, Zitzmann N, McKeating JA

The circadian clock regulates immune responses to microbes and affects pathogen replication, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the circadian components BMAL1 and REV-ERBα influence several steps in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle, including particle entry into hepatocytes and RNA genome replication. Genetic knock out of Bmal1 and over-expression or activation of REV-ERB with synthetic agonists inhibits the replication of HCV and the related flaviruses dengue and Zika via perturbation of lipid signaling pathways. This study highlights a role for the circadian clock component REV-ERBα in regulating flavivirus replication.

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Nature communications, 10, 2041-1723, , 2019


Open Access

LIPID MAPS: Serving the next generation of lipid researchers with tools, resources, data, and training.
O'Donnell VB, Dennis EA, Wakelam MJO, Subramaniam S

Lipids are increasingly recognized as dynamic, critical metabolites affecting human physiology and pathophysiology. LIPID MAPS is a free resource dedicated to serving the lipid research community.

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Science signaling, 12, 1937-9145, , 2019


Open Access

Modeling Meets Metabolomics-The WormJam Consensus Model as Basis for Metabolic Studies in the Model Organism .
Witting M, Hastings J, Rodriguez N, Joshi CJ, Hattwell JPN, Ebert PR, van Weeghel M, Gao AW, Wakelam MJO, Houtkooper RH, Mains A, Le Novère N, Sadykoff S, Schroeder F, Lewis NE, Schirra HJ, Kaleta C, Casanueva O

Metabolism is one of the attributes of life and supplies energy and building blocks to organisms. Therefore, understanding metabolism is crucial for the understanding of complex biological phenomena. Despite having been in the focus of research for centuries, our picture of metabolism is still incomplete. Metabolomics, the systematic analysis of all small molecules in a biological system, aims to close this gap. In order to facilitate such investigations a blueprint of the metabolic network is required. Recently, several metabolic network reconstructions for the model organism have been published, each having unique features. We have established the WormJam Community to merge and reconcile these (and other unpublished models) into a single consensus metabolic reconstruction. In a series of workshops and annotation seminars this model was refined with manual correction of incorrect assignments, metabolite structure and identifier curation as well as addition of new pathways. The WormJam consensus metabolic reconstruction represents a rich data source not only for network-based approaches like flux balance analysis, but also for metabolomics, as it includes a database of metabolites present in , which can be used for annotation. Here we present the process of model merging, correction and curation and give a detailed overview of the model. In the future it is intended to expand the model toward different tissues and put special emphasizes on lipid metabolism and secondary metabolism including ascaroside metabolism in accordance to their central role in physiology.

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Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 5, 2296-889X, , 2018


3D growth of cancer cells elicits sensitivity to kinase inhibitors but not lipid metabolism modifiers.
Jones DT, Valli A, Haider S, Zang Q, Smethurst E, Schug ZT, Peck B, Aboagye EO, Critchlow SE, Schulze A, Gottlieb E, Wakelam MJO, Adrian HL

Tumour cells exhibit altered lipid metabolism compared to normal cells. Cell signalling kinases are important for regulating lipid synthesis and energy storage. How upstream kinases regulate lipid content, versus direct targeting of lipid metabolising enzymes, is currently unexplored. We evaluated intracellular lipid concentrations in prostate and breast tumour spheroids, treated with drugs directly inhibiting metabolic enzymes FASN, ACC, DGAT and PDHK, or cell signalling kinase enzymes PI3K, AKT and mTOR with lipidomic analysis. We assessed whether baseline lipid profiles corresponded to inhibitors' effectiveness in modulating lipid profiles in 3D-growth, and their relationship to therapeutic activity. Inhibitors against PI3K, AKT and mTOR significantly inhibited MDA-MB-468 and PC3 cell growth in 2D and 3D spheroid growth, while moderately altering lipid content. Conversely, metabolism inhibitors against FASN and DGAT altered lipid content most effectively, while only moderately inhibiting growth compared to kinase inhibitors. The FASN and ACC inhibitors' effectiveness in MDA-MB-468, versus PC3, suggested the former depended more on synthesis whereas the latter may salvage lipids. Although baseline lipid profiles didn't predict growth effects, lipid changes on therapy matched the growth effects of FASN and DGAT inhibitors. Several phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholine, were also upregulated following treatment, possibly via the Kennedy pathway. As this promotes tumour growth, combination studies should include drugs targeting it. Two-dimensional drug screening may miss important metabolism inhibitors or underestimate their potency. Clinical studies should consider serial measurements of tumour lipids to prove target modulation. Pre-therapy tumour classification by de novo lipid synthesis versus uptake may help demonstrate efficacy.

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Molecular cancer therapeutics, , 1538-8514, , 2018


Open Access

CD151 regulates expression of FGFR2 in breast cancer cells via PKC-dependent pathways.
Sadej R, Lu X, Turczyk L, Novitskaya V, Lopez-Clavijo AF, Kordek R, Potemski P, Wakelam MJO, Romanska H, Berditchevski F

Expression of the tetraspanin CD151 is frequently upregulated in epithelial malignancies and correlates with poor prognosis. Here we report that CD151 is involved in regulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). Depletion of CD151 in breast cancer cells resulted in an increased level of FGFR2. Accordingly, an inverse correlation between CD151 and FGFR2 was observed in breast cancer tissues. CD151-dependent regulation of the FGFR2 expression relies on post-transcriptional mechanisms involving HuR/ELAVL1, a multifunctional RNA binding protein, and the assembly of processing bodies (P-bodies). Depletion of CD151 correlated with inhibition of PKC, a well-established downstream target of CD151. Accordingly, the levels of dialcylglycerol species were decreased in CD151-negative cells, and inhibition of PKC resulted in the increased expression of FGFR2. Whilst expression of FGFR2 itself did not correlate with any of the clinicopathological data, the FGFR2-/CD151+ patients are more likely to develop lymph node metastasis. Conversely, FGFR2-/CD151- patients demonstrated better overall survival. These results illustrate functional interdependency between CD151 complexes and FGFR2 and suggest a previously unsuspected role of CD151 in breast tumourigenesis.

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Journal of cell science, 131, 1477-9137, , 2018


MS-based lipidomics of human blood plasma - a community-initiated position paper to develop accepted guidelines.
Burla B, Arita M, Arita M, Bendt AK, Cazenave-Gassiot A, Dennis EA, Ekroos K, Han X, Ikeda K, Liebisch G, Lin MK, Loh TP, Meikle PJ, Orešič M, Quehenberger O, Shevchenko A, Torta F, Wakelam MJO, Wheelock CE, Wenk MR

Human blood is a self-regenerating, lipid-rich biologic fluid that is routinely collected in hospital settings. The inventory of lipid molecules found in blood plasma (plasma lipidome) offers insights into individual metabolism and physiology in health and disease. Disturbances in lipid metabolism also occur in conditions that are not directly linked to lipid metabolism; therefore, plasma lipidomics based on mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging tool in an array of clinical diagnostics and disease management. However, challenges exist in the translation of such lipidomic data to clinical applications. These relate to the reproducibility, accuracy, and precision of lipid quantitation, study design, sample handling, and data sharing. This position paper emerged from a workshop that initiated a community-led process to elaborate and define a set of generally accepted guidelines for quantitative MS-based lipidomics of blood plasma or serum, with harmonization of data acquired on different instrumentation platforms in independent laboratories across laboratories as an ultimate goal. We hope that other fields may benefit from and follow such a precedent.

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Journal of lipid research, , 1539-7262, , 2018


Open Access

C. elegans Eats Its Own Intestine to Make Yolk Leading to Multiple Senescent Pathologies.
Ezcurra M, Benedetto A, Sornda T, Gilliat AF, Au C, Zhang Q, van Schelt S, Petrache AL, Wang H, de la Guardia Y, Bar-Nun S, Tyler E, Wakelam MJ, Gems D

Aging (senescence) is characterized by the development of numerous pathologies, some of which limit lifespan. Key to understanding aging is discovery of the mechanisms (etiologies) that cause senescent pathology. In C. elegans, a major senescent pathology of unknown etiology is atrophy of its principal metabolic organ, the intestine. Here we identify a cause of not only this pathology but also of yolky lipid accumulation and redistribution (a form of senescent obesity): autophagy-mediated conversion of intestinal biomass into yolk. Inhibiting intestinal autophagy or vitellogenesis rescues both visceral pathologies and can also extend lifespan. This defines a disease syndrome leading to multimorbidity and contributing to late-life mortality. Activation of gut-to-yolk biomass conversion by insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) promotes reproduction and senescence. This illustrates how major, IIS-promoted senescent pathologies in C. elegans can originate not from damage accumulation but from direct effects of futile, continued action of a wild-type biological program (vitellogenesis).

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Current biology : CB, , 1879-0445, , 2018


Open Access

Host lipidome analysis during rhinovirus replication in human bronchial epithelial cells identifies potential therapeutic targets.
Nguyen A, Guedan A, Mousnier A, Swieboda D, Zhang Q, Horkai D, Le Novere N, Solari R, Wakelam MJO

In patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rhinovirus infections can provoke acute worsening of disease and limited treatment options exist. Viral replication in the host cell induces significant remodeling of intracellular membranes, but few studies have explored this mechanistically or as a therapeutic opportunity. We performed unbiased lipidomic analysis on human bronchial epithelial cells infected over a 6 hour period with the RV-A1b strain of rhinovirus to determine changes in 493 distinct lipid species. Through pathway and network analysis we identified temporal changes in the apparent activities of a number of lipid metabolizing and signaling enzymes. In particular, analysis highlighted fatty acid synthesis and ceramide metabolism as potential anti-rhinoviral targets. To validate the importance of these enzymes in viral replication, we explored the effects of commercially-available enzyme inhibitors upon RV-A1b infection and replication. Ceranib-1, D609 and C75 were the most potent inhibitors, which confirmed that fatty acid synthase and ceramidase are potential inhibitory targets in rhinoviral infections. More broadly, this study demonstrates the potential of lipidomics and pathway analysis to identify novel targets to treat human disorders.

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Journal of lipid research, , 1539-7262, , 2018


Open Access

Flotillin proteins recruit sphingosine to membranes and maintain cellular sphingosine-1-phosphate levels.
Riento K, Zhang Q, Clark J, Begum F, Stephens E, Wakelam MJ, Nichols BJ

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an important lipid signalling molecule. S1P is produced via intracellular phosphorylation of sphingosine (Sph). As a lipid with a single fatty alkyl chain, Sph may diffuse rapidly between cellular membranes and through the aqueous phase. Here, we show that the absence of microdomains generated by multimeric assemblies of flotillin proteins results in reduced S1P levels. Cellular phenotypes of flotillin knockout mice, including changes in histone acetylation and expression of Isg15, are recapitulated when S1P synthesis is perturbed. Flotillins bind to Sph in vitro and increase recruitment of Sph to membranes in cells. Ectopic re-localisation of flotillins within the cell causes concomitant redistribution of Sph. The data suggest that flotillins may directly or indirectly regulate cellular sphingolipid distribution and signalling.

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PloS one, 13, 1932-6203, , 2018


Open Access

Extracellular vesicles : lipids as key components of their biogenesis and functions.
Record M, Silvente-Poirot S, Poirot M, Wakelam MJO

Intercellular communication has been known for decades to involve either direct contact between cells or to operate by spreading molecules such as cytokines, growth factors, or lipid mediators. Through the last decade we have begun to appreciate the increasing importance of intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles released by viable cells either from plasma membrane shedding microvesicles, also named microparticles), or from an intracellular compartment (exosomes). Exosomes and microvesicles circulate in all biological fluids and can trigger biological responses at distance. Their effects include a large variety of biological processes such as immune surveillance, modification of tumor microenvironment, or regulation of inflammation. They carry a large set of active molecules, including lipid mediators such as eicosanoids, proteins and nucleic acids, able to modify the phenotype of receiving cells. This review will highlight the role of the various lipidic pathways involved in the biogenesis and functions of microvesicles and exosomes.

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Journal of lipid research, , 1539-7262, , 2018


Open Access

Phospholipid signaling in innate immune cells.
O'Donnell VB, Rossjohn J, Wakelam MJ

Phospholipids comprise a large body of lipids that define cells and organelles by forming membrane structures. Importantly, their complex metabolism represents a highly controlled cellular signaling network that is essential for mounting an effective innate immune response. Phospholipids in innate cells are subject to dynamic regulation by enzymes, whose activities are highly responsive to activation status. Along with their metabolic products, they regulate multiple aspects of innate immune cell biology, including shape change, aggregation, blood clotting, and degranulation. Phospholipid hydrolysis provides substrates for cell-cell communication, enables regulation of hemostasis, immunity, thrombosis, and vascular inflammation, and is centrally important in cardiovascular disease and associated comorbidities. Phospholipids themselves are also recognized by innate-like T cells, which are considered essential for recognition of infection or cancer, as well as self-antigens. This Review describes the major phospholipid metabolic pathways present in innate immune cells and summarizes the formation and metabolism of phospholipids as well as their emerging roles in cell biology and disease.

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The Journal of clinical investigation, , 1558-8238, , 2018


Deciphering lipid structures based on platform-independent decision rules.
Hartler J, Triebl A, Ziegl A, Trötzmüller M, Rechberger GN, Zeleznik OA, Zierler KA, Torta F, Cazenave-Gassiot A, Wenk MR, Fauland A, Wheelock CE, Armando AM, Quehenberger O, Zhang Q, Wakelam MJO, Haemmerle G, Spener F, Köfeler HC, Thallinger GG

We achieve automated and reliable annotation of lipid species and their molecular structures in high-throughput data from chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry using decision rule sets embedded in Lipid Data Analyzer (LDA; Using various low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry instruments with several collision energies, we proved the method's platform independence. We propose that the software's reliability, flexibility, and ability to identify novel lipid molecular species may now render current state-of-the-art lipid libraries obsolete.

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Nature methods, , 1548-7105, , 2017


Dietary restriction protects from age-associated DNA methylation and induces epigenetic reprogramming of lipid metabolism.
Hahn O, Grönke S, Stubbs TM, Ficz G, Hendrich O, Krueger F, Andrews S, Zhang Q, Wakelam MJ, Beyer A, Reik W, Partridge L

Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in food intake without malnutrition, increases most aspects of health during aging and extends lifespan in diverse species, including rodents. However, the mechanisms by which DR interacts with the aging process to improve health in old age are poorly understood. DNA methylation could play an important role in mediating the effects of DR because it is sensitive to the effects of nutrition and can affect gene expression memory over time.

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Genome biology, 18, 1474-760X, , 2017


Open Access

Autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor signalling regulates hepatitis C virus replication.
Farquhar MJ, Humphreys IS, Rudge SA, Wilson GK, Bhattacharya B, Ciaccia M, Hu K, Zhang Q, Mailly L, Reynolds GM, Aschcroft M, Balfe P, Baumert TF, Roessler S, Wakelam MJ, McKeating JA

Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem with an estimated 170 million HCV infected individuals at risk of progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Autotaxin (ATX) is a phospholipase with diverse roles in physiological and pathological processes including inflammation and oncogenesis. Clinical studies have reported increased ATX expression in chronic hepatitis C, however, the pathways regulating ATX and its role in the viral life cycle are not well understood.

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Journal of hepatology, , 1600-0641, , 2017


Runx1 Orchestrates Sphingolipid Metabolism and Glucocorticoid Resistance in Lymphomagenesis.
Kilbey A, Terry A, Wotton S, Borland G, Zhang Q, Mackay N, McDonald A, Bell M, Wakelam MJ, Cameron ER, Neil JC

The three-membered RUNX gene family includes RUNX1, a major mutational target in human leukemias, and displays hallmarks of both tumor suppressors and oncogenes. In mouse models, the Runx genes appear to act as conditional oncogenes, as ectopic expression is growth suppressive in normal cells but drives lymphoma development potently when combined with over-expressed Myc or loss of p53. Clues to underlying mechanisms emerged previously from murine fibroblasts where ectopic expression of any of the Runx genes promotes survival through direct and indirect regulation of key enzymes in sphingolipid metabolism associated with a shift in the "sphingolipid rheostat" from ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Testing of this relationship in lymphoma cells was therefore a high priority. We find that ectopic expression of Runx1 in lymphoma cells consistently perturbs the sphingolipid rheostat, whereas an essential physiological role for Runx1 is revealed by reduced S1P levels in normal spleen after partial Cre-mediated excision. Furthermore, we show that ectopic Runx1 expression confers increased resistance of lymphoma cells to glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis, and elucidate the mechanism of cross-talk between glucocorticoid and sphingolipid metabolism through Sgpp1. Dexamethasone potently induces expression of Sgpp1 in T-lymphoma cells and drives cell death which is reduced by partial knockdown of Sgpp1 with shRNA or direct transcriptional repression of Sgpp1 by ectopic Runx1. Together these data show that Runx1 plays a role in regulating the sphingolipid rheostat in normal development and that perturbation of this cell fate regulator contributes to Runx-driven lymphomagenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1432-1441, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Journal of cellular biochemistry, 118, 1097-4644, , 2017


Open Access

Phospholipase D activity couples plasma membrane endocytosis with retromer dependent recycling.
Thakur R, Panda A, Coessens E, Raj N, Yadav S, Balakrishnan S, Zhang Q, Georgiev P, Basak B, Pasricha R, Wakelam MJ, Ktistakis NT, Padinjat R

During illumination, the light sensitive plasma membrane (rhabdomere) of Drosophila photoreceptors undergoes turnover with consequent changes in size and composition. However the mechanism by which illumination is coupled to rhabdomere turnover remains unclear. We find that photoreceptors contain a light-dependent phospholipase D (PLD) activity. During illumination, loss of PLD resulted in an enhanced reduction in rhabdomere size, accumulation of Rab7 positive, rhodopsin1-containing vesicles (RLVs) in the cell body and reduced rhodopsin protein. These phenotypes were associated with reduced levels of phosphatidic acid, the product of PLD activity and were rescued by reconstitution with catalytically active PLD. In wild type photoreceptors, during illumination, enhanced PLD activity was sufficient to clear RLVs from the cell body by a process dependent on Arf1-GTP levels and retromer complex function. Thus, during illumination, PLD activity couples endocytosis of RLVs with their recycling to the plasma membrane thus maintaining plasma membrane size and composition.

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eLife, 5, 2050-084X, , 2016


Open Access

Using lipidomics analysis to determine signalling and metabolic changes in cells.
Nguyen A, Rudge SA, Zhang Q, Wakelam MJ

Recent advances in lipidomics tools and software assist in the identification and quantification of lipid species detected by mass spectrometry. By integrating mass spectrometric lipid data into mapped pathways and databases, an entire network of lipid species which both demonstrates the complexity of lipid structures and biochemical interactions can be constructed. Here we demonstrate lipidomics analysis at both systematic and molecular levels. This review focuses on four points: how lipid data can be collected and processed with the support of tools, software and databases; how lipidomic analysis is performed at the molecular level; how to integrate data analysis into a biological context; how the results of such analysis predict enzyme activities and potential sites for therapeutic interventions or manipulation of enzyme activities.

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Current opinion in biotechnology, 43, 1879-0429, , 2017


Insulin resistance uncoupled from dyslipidemia due to C-terminal PIK3R1 mutations.
Huang-Doran I, Tomlinson P, Payne F, Gast A, Sleigh A, Bottomley W, Harris J, Daly A, Rocha N, Rudge S, Clark J, Kwok A, Romeo S, McCann E, Müksch B, Dattani M, Zucchini S, Wakelam M, Foukas LC, Savage DB, Murphy R, O'Rahilly S, Barroso I, Semple RK

Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis. In 3 of these 4, plasma adiponectin was preserved, as in insulin receptor dysfunction. The fourth patient and her healthy mother had low plasma adiponectin associated with a potentially novel mutation, p.Asp231Ala, in adiponectin itself. Cells studied from one patient with the p.Tyr657X PIK3R1 mutation expressed abundant truncated PIK3R1 products and showed severely reduced insulin-stimulated association of mutant but not WT p85α with IRS1, but normal downstream signaling. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, mutant p85α overexpression attenuated insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and adipocyte differentiation. Thus, PIK3R1 C-terminal mutations impair insulin signaling only in some cellular contexts and produce a subphenotype of insulin resistance resembling INSR dysfunction but unlike AKT2 dysfunction, implicating PI3K in the pathogenesis of key components of the metabolic syndrome.

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JCI insight, 1, , , 2016


Open Access

The Phospholipase D2 Knock Out Mouse Has Ectopic Purkinje Cells and Suffers from Early Adult-Onset Anosmia.
Vermeren MM, Zhang Q, Smethurst E, Segonds-Pichon A, Schrewe H, Wakelam MJ

Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid messenger molecule involved in a number of cellular events including, through its membrane curvature properties, endocytosis. The PLD2 knock out (PLD2KO) mouse has been previously reported to be protected from insult in a model of Alzheimer's disease. We have further analysed a PLD2KO mouse using mass spectrophotometry of its lipids and found significant differences in PA species throughout its brain. We have examined the expression pattern of PLD2 which allowed us to define which region of the brain to analyse for defect, notably PLD2 was not detected in glial-rich regions. The expression pattern lead us to specifically examine the mitral cells of olfactory bulbs, the Cornus Amonis (CA) regions of the hippocampus and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We find that the change to longer PA species correlates with subtle architectural defect in the cerebellum, exemplified by ectopic Purkinje cells and an adult-onset deficit of olfaction. These observations draw parallels to defects in the reelin heterozygote as well as the effect of high fat diet on olfaction.

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PloS one, 11, 1932-6203, , 0


Open Access

Exosomes bind autotaxin and act as a physiological delivery mechanism to stimulate LPA receptor signalling in cells.
Jethwa SA, Leah EJ, Zhang Q, Bright NA, Oxley D, Bootman MD, Rudge SA, Wakelam MJ

Autotaxin (ATX) the lysophospholipase responsible for generating the lipid receptor agonist lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a secreted enzyme. Here we show that once secreted it can bind to the surface of cell secreted exosomes. Exosome-bound ATX is catalytically active and carries generated LPA. Once bound to a cell, through specific integrin interaction, ATX releases the LPA to activate cell surface G-protein coupled LPA receptors; inhibition of signaling by the receptor antagonist Ki1642 suggests these are either LPAR1 or LPAR3. The binding stimulates downstream signaling including AKT and MAPK phosphorylation, the release of intracellular stored calcium and cell migration. We propose that exosomal binding of LPA-loaded ATX provides a means of efficiently delivering the lipid agonist to cell surface receptors to promote signalling. We further propose that this is a means whereby autotaxin-LPA signaling operates physiologically.

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Journal of cell science, , 1477-9137, , 2016


Open Access

C13orf31 (FAMIN) is a central regulator of immunometabolic function.
Cader MZ, Boroviak K, Zhang Q, Assadi G, Kempster SL, Sewell GW, Saveljeva S, Ashcroft JW, Clare S, Mukhopadhyay S, Brown KP, Tschurtschenthaler M, Raine T, Doe B, Chilvers ER, Griffin JL, Kaneider NC, Floto RA, D'Amato M, Bradley A, Wakelam MJ, Dougan G, Kaser A

Single-nucleotide variations in C13orf31 (LACC1) that encode p.C284R and p.I254V in a protein of unknown function (called 'FAMIN' here) are associated with increased risk for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, leprosy and Crohn's disease. Here we set out to identify the biological mechanism affected by these coding variations. FAMIN formed a complex with fatty acid synthase (FASN) on peroxisomes and promoted flux through de novo lipogenesis to concomitantly drive high levels of fatty-acid oxidation (FAO) and glycolysis and, consequently, ATP regeneration. FAMIN-dependent FAO controlled inflammasome activation, mitochondrial and NADPH-oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the bactericidal activity of macrophages. As p.I254V and p.C284R resulted in diminished function and loss of function, respectively, FAMIN determined resilience to endotoxin shock. Thus, we have identified a central regulator of the metabolic function and bioenergetic state of macrophages that is under evolutionary selection and determines the risk of inflammatory and infectious disease.

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Nature immunology, , 1529-2916, , 2016


Inhibition of fatty acid desaturation is detrimental to cancer cell survival in metabolically compromised environments.
Peck B, Schug ZT, Zhang Q, Dankworth B, Jones DT, Smethurst E, Patel R, Mason S, Jiang M, Saunders R, Howell M, Mitter R, Spencer-Dene B, Stamp G, McGarry L, James D, Shanks E, Aboagye EO, Critchlow SE, Leung HY, Harris AL, Wakelam MJ, Gottlieb E, Schulze A

Enhanced macromolecule biosynthesis is integral to growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Lipid biosynthesis has been predicted to be an essential process in cancer cells. However, it is unclear which enzymes within this pathway offer the best selectivity for cancer cells and could be suitable therapeutic targets.

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Cancer & metabolism, 4, 2049-3002, , 2016


Open Access

Purification, characterization and crystallization of the F-ATPase from Paracoccus denitrificans.
Morales-Rios E, Watt IN, Zhang Q, Ding S, Fearnley IM, Montgomery MG, Wakelam MJ, Walker JE

The structures of F-ATPases have been determined predominantly with mitochondrial enzymes, but hitherto no F-ATPase has been crystallized intact. A high-resolution model of the bovine enzyme built up from separate sub-structures determined by X-ray crystallography contains about 85% of the entire complex, but it lacks a crucial region that provides a transmembrane proton pathway involved in the generation of the rotary mechanism that drives the synthesis of ATP. Here the isolation, characterization and crystallization of an integral F-ATPase complex from the α-proteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans are described. Unlike many eubacterial F-ATPases, which can both synthesize and hydrolyse ATP, the P. denitrificans enzyme can only carry out the synthetic reaction. The mechanism of inhibition of its ATP hydrolytic activity involves a ζ inhibitor protein, which binds to the catalytic F1-domain of the enzyme. The complex that has been crystallized, and the crystals themselves, contain the nine core proteins of the complete F-ATPase complex plus the ζ inhibitor protein. The formation of crystals depends upon the presence of bound bacterial cardiolipin and phospholipid molecules; when they were removed, the complex failed to crystallize. The experiments open the way to an atomic structure of an F-ATPase complex.

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Open biology, 5, 2046-2441, , 2015


Cell cycle progression is an essential regulatory component of phospholipid metabolism and membrane homeostasis.
Sanchez-Alvarez M, Zhang Q, Finger F, Wakelam MJ, Bakal C

We show that phospholipid anabolism does not occur uniformly during the metazoan cell cycle. Transition to S-phase is required for optimal mobilization of lipid precursors, synthesis of specific phospholipid species and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Average changes observed in whole-cell phospholipid composition, and total ER lipid content, upon stimulation of cell growth can be explained by the cell cycle distribution of the population. TORC1 promotes phospholipid anabolism by slowing S/G2 progression. The cell cycle stage-specific nature of lipid biogenesis is dependent on p53. We propose that coupling lipid metabolism to cell cycle progression is a means by which cells have evolved to coordinate proliferation with cell and organelle growth.

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Open biology, 5, 2046-2441, , 2015


Open Access

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related overgrowth: cellular phenotype and future therapeutic options.
Parker VE, Knox RG, Zhang Q, Wakelam MJ, Semple RK

Somatic activating mutations in PIK3CA, which encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) are frequently found in cancers and have been identified in a spectrum of mosaic overgrowth disorders ranging from isolated digit enlargement to more extensive overgrowth of the body, brain, or vasculature. We aimed to study affected dermal fibroblasts with a view to inform therapeutic studies, and to observe cancer-associated mutations in isolation.

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Lancet (London, England), 385 Suppl 1, 1474-547X, , 2015


Phosphatidylinositolphosphate Phosphatase Activities and Cancer.
Rudge SA, Wakelam MJ

Signalling through the PI3kinases pathways mediates the actions of a plethora of hormones, growth factors, cytokines and neurotransmitters upon their target cells following receptor occupation. Over-activation of these pathways has been implicated in a number of pathologies in particular a range of malignancies. The tight regulation of signalling pathways necessitates the involvement of both stimulatory a terminating enzymes, inappropriate activation of a pathway can thus result from activation or inhibition of the two signalling arms. A range of enzymes have been identified that catalyse the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides, this review outlines these and highlights those that have been implicated in promoting malignancy.

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Journal of lipid research, , 0022-2275, , 2015


Speed and sensitivity of phototransduction in Drosophila depend on degree of saturation of membrane phospholipids.
Randall AS, Liu CH, Chu B, Zhang Q, Dongre SA, Juusola M, Franze K, Wakelam MJ, Hardie RC

Drosophila phototransduction is mediated via a G-protein-coupled PLC cascade. Recent evidence, including the demonstration that light evokes rapid contractions of the photoreceptors, suggested that the light-sensitive channels (TRP and TRPL) may be mechanically gated, together with protons released by PLC-mediated PIP2 hydrolysis. If mechanical gating is involved we predicted that the response to light should be influenced by altering the physical properties of the membrane. To achieve this, we used diet to manipulate the degree of saturation of membrane phospholipids. In flies reared on a yeast diet, lacking polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mass spectrometry showed that the proportion of polyunsaturated phospholipids was sevenfold reduced (from 38 to ∼5%) but rescued by adding a single species of PUFA (linolenic or linoleic acid) to the diet. Photoreceptors from yeast-reared flies showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in latency and time to peak of the light response, without affecting quantum bump waveform. In the absence of Ca(2+) influx or in trp mutants expressing only TRPL channels, sensitivity to light was reduced up to ∼10-fold by the yeast diet, and essentially abolished in hypomorphic G-protein mutants (Gαq). PLC activity appeared little affected by the yeast diet; however, light-induced contractions measured by atomic force microscopy or the activation of ectopic mechanosensitive gramicidin channels were also slowed ∼2-fold. The results are consistent with mechanosensitive gating and provide a striking example of how dietary fatty acids can profoundly influence sensory performance in a classical G-protein-coupled signaling cascade.

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The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 35, 1529-2401, , 2015


Open Access

Acetyl-CoA Synthetase 2 Promotes Acetate Utilization and Maintains Cancer Cell Growth under Metabolic Stress.
Schug ZT, Peck B, Jones DT, Zhang Q, Grosskurth S, Alam IS, Goodwin LM, Smethurst E, Mason S, Blyth K, McGarry L, James D, Shanks E, Kalna G, Saunders RE, Jiang M, Howell M, Lassailly F, Thin MZ, Spencer-Dene B, Stamp G, van den Broek NJ, Mackay G, Bulusu V, Kamphorst JJ, Tardito S, Strachan D, Harris AL, Aboagye EO, Critchlow SE, Wakelam MJ, Schulze A, Gottlieb E

A functional genomics study revealed that the activity of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) contributes to cancer cell growth under low-oxygen and lipid-depleted conditions. Comparative metabolomics and lipidomics demonstrated that acetate is used as a nutritional source by cancer cells in an ACSS2-dependent manner, and supplied a significant fraction of the carbon within the fatty acid and phospholipid pools. ACSS2 expression is upregulated under metabolically stressed conditions and ACSS2 silencing reduced the growth of tumor xenografts. ACSS2 exhibits copy-number gain in human breast tumors, and ACSS2 expression correlates with disease progression. These results signify a critical role for acetate consumption in the production of lipid biomass within the harsh tumor microenvironment.

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Cancer cell, 27, 1878-3686, , 2015


Open Access

P-Rex and Vav Rac-GEFs in platelets control leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation.
Pan D, Amison RT, Riffo-Vasquez Y, Spina D, Cleary SJ, Wakelam MJ, Page CP, Pitchford SC, Welch HC

The small GTPase Rac is required for neutrophil recruitment during inflammation, but its GEF activators seem dispensable for this process, which led us to investigate the possibility of cooperation between Rac-GEF families. Thioglycollate-induced neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneum was more severely impaired in P-Rex1(-/-) Vav1(-/-) (P1V1) or P-Rex1(-/-) Vav3(-/-) (P1V3) mice than in P-Rex null or Vav null mice, suggesting cooperation between P-Rex and Vav Rac-GEFs in this process. Neutrophil transmigration and airway infiltration were all but lost in P1V1 and P1V3 mice during LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, with altered ICAM1-dependent slow neutrophil rolling and strongly reduced L- and E-selectin dependent adhesion in airway postcapillary venules. Analysis of adhesion molecule expression, neutrophil adhesion, spreading and migration suggested these defects to be only partially neutrophil-intrinsic and not obviously involving vascular endothelial cells. Instead, P1V1 and P1V3 platelets recapitulated the impairment of LPS-induced intravascular neutrophil adhesion and recruitment, revealing P-Rex and Vav expression in platelets to be crucial. Similarly, during ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation, pulmonary recruitment of P1V1 and P1V3 eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes was compromised in a platelet-dependent manner, and airway inflammation essentially abolished, resulting in improved airway responsiveness. Therefore, platelet P-Rex and Vav family Rac-GEFs play important proinflammatory roles in leukocyte recruitment.

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Blood, , 1528-0020, , 2014


Open Access

The proto-oncogene PBF binds p53 and is associated with prognostic features in colorectal cancer.
Read ML, Seed RI, Modasia B, Kwan PP, Sharma N, Smith VE, Watkins RJ, Bansal S, Gagliano T, Stratford AL, Ismail T, Wakelam MJ, Kim DS, Ward ST, Boelaert K, Franklyn JA, Turnell AS, McCabe CJ

The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF) is a transforming gene capable of eliciting tumor formation in xenograft models. However, the precise role of PBF in tumorigenesis and its prognostic value as a cancer biomarker remain largely uncharacterised, particularly in malignancies outside the thyroid. Here, we provide the first evidence that PBF represents a promising prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Examination of a total of 39 patients demonstrated higher PBF expression at both the mRNA (P = 0.009) and protein (P < 0.0001) level in colorectal tumors compared to matched normal tissue. Critically, PBF was most abundant in colorectal tumors associated with Extramural Vascular Invasion (EMVI), increased genetic instability (GI) and somatic TP53 mutations, all features linked with recurrence and poorer patient survival. We further demonstrate by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation that PBF binds to the tumor suppressor protein p53, as well as to p53 mutants (Δ126-132, M133K, V197E, G245D, I255F and R273C) identified in the colorectal tumors. Importantly, overexpression of PBF in colorectal HCT116 cells interfered with the transcriptional activity of p53-responsive genes such as mdm2, p21 and sfn. Diminished p53 stability (> 90%; P < 0.01) was also evident with a concurrent increase in ubiquitinated p53. Human colorectal tumors with wild-type TP53 and high PBF expression also had low p53 protein levels (P < 0.05), further emphasizing a putative interaction between these genes in vivo. Overall, these results demonstrate an emerging role for PBF in colorectal tumorigenesis through regulating p53 activity, with implications for PBF as a prognostic indicator for invasive tumors. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Molecular carcinogenesis, , 1098-2744, , 2014


Open Access

Melanoma Cells Break Down LPA to Establish Local Gradients That Drive Chemotactic Dispersal.
Muinonen-Martin AJ, Susanto O, Q Zhang, Smethurst E, Faller WJ, Veltman DM, Kalna G, Lindsay C, Bennett DC, Sansom OJ, Herd R, Jones R, Machesky LM, Wakelam MJ, Knecht DA, Insall RH

The high mortality of melanoma is caused by rapid spread of cancer cells, which occurs unusually early in tumour evolution. Unlike most solid tumours, thickness rather than cytological markers or differentiation is the best guide to metastatic potential. Multiple stimuli that drive melanoma cell migration have been described, but it is not clear which are responsible for invasion, nor if chemotactic gradients exist in real tumours. In a chamber-based assay for melanoma dispersal, we find that cells migrate efficiently away from one another, even in initially homogeneous medium. This dispersal is driven by positive chemotaxis rather than chemorepulsion or contact inhibition. The principal chemoattractant, unexpectedly active across all tumour stages, is the lipid agonist lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acting through the LPA receptor LPAR1. LPA induces chemotaxis of remarkable accuracy, and is both necessary and sufficient for chemotaxis and invasion in 2-D and 3-D assays. Growth factors, often described as tumour attractants, cause negligible chemotaxis themselves, but potentiate chemotaxis to LPA. Cells rapidly break down LPA present at substantial levels in culture medium and normal skin to generate outward-facing gradients. We measure LPA gradients across the margins of melanomas in vivo, confirming the physiological importance of our results. We conclude that LPA chemotaxis provides a strong drive for melanoma cells to invade outwards. Cells create their own gradients by acting as a sink, breaking down locally present LPA, and thus forming a gradient that is low in the tumour and high in the surrounding areas. The key step is not acquisition of sensitivity to the chemoattractant, but rather the tumour growing to break down enough LPA to form a gradient. Thus the stimulus that drives cell dispersal is not the presence of LPA itself, but the self-generated, outward-directed gradient.

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PLoS biology, 12, 1545-7885, , 2014


Open Access

Fatty Acid Uptake and Lipid Storage Induced by HIF-1α Contribute to Cell Growth and Survival after Hypoxia-Reoxygenation.
Bensaad K, Favaro E, Lewis CA, Peck B, Lord S, Collins JM, Pinnick KE, Wigfield S, Buffa FM, Li JL, Q Zhang, MJ Wakelam, Karpe F, Schulze A, Harris AL

An in vivo model of antiangiogenic therapy allowed us to identify genes upregulated by bevacizumab treatment, including Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 (FABP3) and FABP7, both of which are involved in fatty acid uptake. In vitro, both were induced by hypoxia in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. There was a significant lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in hypoxia that was time and O2 concentration dependent. Knockdown of endogenous expression of FABP3, FABP7, or Adipophilin (an essential LD structural component) significantly impaired LD formation under hypoxia. We showed that LD accumulation is due to FABP3/7-dependent fatty acid uptake while de novo fatty acid synthesis is repressed in hypoxia. We also showed that ATP production occurs via β-oxidation or glycogen degradation in a cell-type-dependent manner in hypoxia-reoxygenation. Finally, inhibition of lipid storage reduced protection against reactive oxygen species toxicity, decreased the survival of cells subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation in-vitro, and strongly impaired tumorigenesis in-vivo.

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Cell reports, 9, 2211-1247, , 2014


Open Access

Modulation of triglyceride and cholesterol ester synthesis impairs assembly of infectious hepatitis C virus.
Liefhebber JM,Hague CV,Zhang Q,Wakelam MJ,McLauchlan J

In hepatitis C virus infection, replication of the viral genome and virion assembly are linked to cellular metabolic processes. In particular, lipid droplets, which store principally triacylglycerides (TAGs) and cholesterol esters (CEs), have been implicated in production of infectious virus. Here, we examine the effect on productive infection of triacsin C and YIC-C8-434, which inhibit synthesis of TAGs and CEs by targeting long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase, respectively. Our results present high resolution data on the acylglycerol and cholesterol ester species that were affected by the compounds. Moreover, triacsin C, which blocks both triglyceride and cholesterol ester synthesis, cleared most of the lipid droplets in cells. By contrast, YIC-C8-434, which only abrogates production of cholesterol esters, induced an increase in size of droplets. Although both compounds slightly reduced viral RNA synthesis, they significantly impaired assembly of infectious virions in infected cells. In the case of triacsin C, reduced stability of the viral core protein, which forms the virion nucleocapsid and is targeted to the surface of lipid droplets, correlated with lower virion assembly. In addition, the virus particles that were released from cells had reduced specific infectivity. YIC-C8-434 did not alter the association of core with lipid droplets but appeared to decrease production of infectious virus particles, suggesting a block in virion assembly. Thus, the compounds have antiviral properties, indicating that targeting synthesis of lipids stored in lipid droplets might be an option for therapeutic intervention in treating chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

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The Journal of biological chemistry, 289, 1083-351X, , 2014


Open Access

Lipid droplet formation in response to oleic acid in Huh-7 cells is mediated by the fatty acid receptor FFAR4.
Rohwedder A,Zhang Q,Rudge SA,Wakelam MJ

It is unclear how changes in lipid droplet size and number are regulated - for example, it is not known whether this involves a signalling pathway or is directed by cellular lipid uptake. Here, we show that oleic acid stimulates lipid droplet formation by activating the long-chain fatty acid receptor FFAR4, which signals through a pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein signalling pathway involving phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), AKT (also known as protein kinase B) and phospholipase D (PLD) activities. This initial lipid droplet formation is not dependent upon exogenous lipid, whereas the subsequent more sustained increase in the number of lipid droplets is dependent upon lipid uptake. These two mechanisms of lipid droplet formation point to distinct potential intervention points.

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Journal of cell science, 127, 1477-9137, , 2014


Open Access

The uses and limitations of the analysis of cellular phosphoinositides by lipidomic and imaging methodologies.
Wakelam MJ

The advent of mass spectrometric methods has facilitated the determination of multiple molecular species of cellular lipid classes including the polyphosphoinositides, though to date methods to analyse and quantify each of the individual three PtdInsP and three PtdInsP2 species are lacking. The use of imaging methods has allowed intracellular localization of the phosphoinositide classes but this methodology does not determine the acyl structures. The range of molecular species suggests a greater complexity in polyphosphoinositide signaling than yet defined but elucidating this will require further method development to be achieved. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.

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Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1841, 0006-3002, , 2014


Open Access

SnapShot: Lipid kinase and phosphatase reaction pathways.
Rudge SA, Wakelam MJ

Cell, 156, 1097-4172, , 2014


Open Access

SnapShot: lipid kinases and phosphatases.
Rudge SA, Wakelam MJ

Cell, 155, 1097-4172, , 2013


Open Access

Lipidomics in the analysis of malignancy.
Zhang Q, Wakelam MJ

Lipidomic methodologies have developed such that determination in lipid species content of cells and tissues is increasingly achievable. Adoption of these methods is highlighting the physiological importance of individual lipid molecular species rather than changes in an overall lipid class. In this article the use of such methodologies is considered and the potential for understanding the importance of lipid changes in malignancy assessed.

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Advances in biological regulation, 54, 2212-4934, , 2014


Sterol regulatory element binding protein-dependent regulation of lipid synthesis supports cell survival and tumor growth.
Griffiths B,Lewis CA,Bensaad K,Ros S,Zhang Q,Ferber EC,Konisti S,Peck B,Miess H,East P,Wakelam M,Harris AL,Schulze A

Regulation of lipid metabolism via activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) has emerged as an important function of the Akt/mTORC1 signaling axis. Although the contribution of dysregulated Akt/mTORC1 signaling to cancer has been investigated extensively and altered lipid metabolism is observed in many tumors, the exact role of SREBPs in the control of biosynthetic processes required for Akt-dependent cell growth and their contribution to tumorigenesis remains unclear.

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Cancer & metabolism, 1, 2049-3002, , 2013


Open Access

Knockdown of diacylglycerol kinase delta inhibits adipocyte differentiation and alters lipid synthesis.
CE Lowe, Q Zhang, RJ Dennis, EM Aubry, S O'Rahilly, MJ Wakelam, JJ Rochford

OBJECTIVE: Decreased expression of diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGKδ) has been linked to insulin resistance in humans and mice and it is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue. Therefore, its role in adipogenesis was examined. DESIGN AND METHODS: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were generated in which DGKδ expression had been knocked down and the effect of this on adipogenesis was determined. Lipidomic analyses were performed to determine levels of the DGKδ product phosphatidic acid (PA), its substrate diacylglycerol (DAG) and triglyceride (TG). RESULTS: Inhibiting DGKδ expression prevents adipogenesis. DGKδ knockdown in differentiating adipocytes blunted the increase in total levels of PA and DAG but did not affect the early rise in TG levels. DAG or PA species acting as TG precursors were only modestly reduced by DGKδ knockdown which significantly impaired the accumulation of DAG or PA species implicated in intracellular signaling. The DAG activated kinase PKCδ was also stimulated in DGKδ knockdown cells, despite no increase in detectable species of DAG. CONCLUSIONS: DGKδ is a novel regulator of adipogenesis and phosphorylates a quantitatively small pool of signaling DAG important for differentiation and indirectly affects overall levels of signaling DAG and PA species distinct from those acting as precursors for TG synthesis.

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Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), , , , 2013

DOI: 10.1002/oby.20297

Open Access

LipidHome: a database of theoretical lipids optimized for high throughput mass spectrometry lipidomics.
JM Foster, P Moreno, A Fabregat, H Hermjakob, C Steinbeck, R Apweiler, MJ Wakelam, JA Vizcaíno

Protein sequence databases are the pillar upon which modern proteomics is supported, representing a stable reference space of predicted and validated proteins. One example of such resources is UniProt, enriched with both expertly curated and automatic annotations. Taken largely for granted, similar mature resources such as UniProt are not available yet in some other "omics" fields, lipidomics being one of them. While having a seasoned community of wet lab scientists, lipidomics lies significantly behind proteomics in the adoption of data standards and other core bioinformatics concepts. This work aims to reduce the gap by developing an equivalent resource to UniProt called 'LipidHome', providing theoretically generated lipid molecules and useful metadata. Using the 'FASTLipid' Java library, a database was populated with theoretical lipids, generated from a set of community agreed upon chemical bounds. In parallel, a web application was developed to present the information and provide computational access via a web service. Designed specifically to accommodate high throughput mass spectrometry based approaches, lipids are organised into a hierarchy that reflects the variety in the structural resolution of lipid identifications. Additionally, cross-references to other lipid related resources and papers that cite specific lipids were used to annotate lipid records. The web application encompasses a browser for viewing lipid records and a 'tools' section where an MS1 search engine is currently implemented. LipidHome can be accessed at

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PloS one, 8, 5, , 2013

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061951

Open Access

Shorthand notation for lipid structures derived from mass spectrometry.
G Liebisch, JA Vizcaíno, H Köfeler, M Trötzmüller, WJ Griffiths, G Schmitz, F Spener, MJ Wakelam

There is a need for a standardized, practical annotation for structures of lipid species derived from mass spectrometric approaches; i.e., for high-throughput data obtained from instruments operating in either high- or low-resolution modes. This proposal is based on common, officially accepted terms and builds upon the LIPID MAPS terminology. It aims to add defined levels of information below the LIPID MAPS nomenclature, as detailed chemical structures, including stereochemistry, are usually not automatically provided by mass spectrometric analysis. To this end, rules for lipid species annotation were developed that reflect the structural information derived from the analysis. For example, commonly used head group-specific analysis of glycerophospholipids (GP) by low-resolution instruments is neither capable of differentiating the fatty acids linked to the glycerol backbone nor able to define their bond type (ester, alkyl-, or alk-1-enyl-ether). This and other missing structural information is covered by the proposed shorthand notation presented here. Beyond GPs, we provide shorthand notation for fatty acids/acyls (FA), glycerolipids (GL), sphingolipids (SP), and sterols (ST). In summary, this defined shorthand nomenclature provides a standard methodology for reporting lipid species from mass spectrometric analysis and for constructing databases.

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Journal of lipid research, 54, 6, , 2013

DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M033506

Open Access

Lipidome analysis of rotavirus-infected cells confirms the close interaction of lipid droplets with viroplasms.
ER Gaunt, Q Zhang, W Cheung, MJ Wakelam, AM Lever, U Desselberger

Rotaviruses (RVs) cause acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children, and are globally distributed. Within the infected host cell, RVs establish replication complexes in viroplasms ('viral factories') to which lipid droplet organelles are recruited. To further understand this recently discovered phenomenon, the lipidomes of RV-infected and uninfected MA104 cells were investigated. Cell lysates were subjected to equilibrium ultracentrifugation through iodixanol gradients. Fourteen different classes of lipids were differentiated by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of virtually all lipids were elevated in RV-infected cells. Fractions of low density (1.11-1.15 g ml⁻¹), in which peaks of the RV dsRNA genome and lipid droplet- and viroplasm-associated proteins were observed, contained increased amounts of lipids typically found concentrated in the cellular organelle lipid droplets, confirming the close interaction of lipid droplets with viroplasms. A decrease in the ratio of the amounts of surface to internal components of lipid droplets upon RV infection suggested that the lipid droplet-viroplasm complexes became enlarged.

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The Journal of general virology, 94, Pt 7, , 2013

DOI: 10.1099/vir.0.049635-0

Open Access

Assessing the value of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in improving the appropriateness of referrals for colorectal cancer.
S Damery, L Nichols, R Holder, ST Ward, S Warmington, S Wilson, MJ Wakelam, J James, T Ismail

A blood test may be an effective means of improving the appropriateness of referrals for symptomatic patients referred to specialist colorectal clinics. We evaluated the accuracy of a serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP9) test in indicating colorectal cancer or its precursor conditions in a symptomatic population.

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British journal of cancer, 108, 5, , 2013

DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2013.49

Open Access

Acute manipulation of diacylglycerol reveals roles in nuclear envelope assembly & endoplasmic reticulum morphology.
MC Domart, TM Hobday, CJ Peddie, GH Chung, A Wang, K Yeh, N Jethwa, Q Zhang, MJ Wakelam, R Woscholski, RD Byrne, LM Collinson, DL Poccia, B Larijani

The functions and morphology of cellular membranes are intimately related and depend not only on their protein content but also on the repertoire of lipids that comprise them. In the absence of in vivo data on lipid asymmetry in endomembranes, it has been argued that motors, scaffolding proteins or integral membrane proteins rather than non-lamellar bilayer lipids such as diacylglycerol (DAG), are responsible for shaping of organelles, local membrane curvature and fusion. The effects of direct alteration of levels of such lipids remain predominantly uninvestigated. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a well documented second messenger. Here we demonstrate two additional conserved functions of DAG: a structural role in organelle morphology, and a role in localised extreme membrane curvature required for fusion for which proteins alone are insufficient. Acute and inducible DAG depletion results in failure of the nuclear envelope (NE) to reform at mitosis and reorganisation of the ER into multi-lamellar sheets as revealed by correlative light and electron microscopy and 3D reconstructions. Remarkably, depleted cells divide without a complete NE, and unless rescued by 1,2 or 1,3 DAG soon die. Attenuation of DAG levels by enzyme microinjection into echinoderm eggs and embryos also results in alterations of ER morphology and nuclear membrane fusion. Our findings demonstrate that DAG is an in vivo modulator of organelle morphology in mammalian and echinoderm cells, indicating a fundamental role conserved across the deuterostome superphylum.

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PloS one, 7, 12, , 2012

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051150

Open Access

PTEN mutations as a cause of constitutive insulin sensitivity and obesity.
A Pal, TM Barber, M Van de Bunt, SA Rudge, Q Zhang, KL Lachlan, NS Cooper, H Linden, JC Levy, MJ Wakelam, L Walker, F Karpe, AL Gloyn

Epidemiologic and genetic evidence links type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer. The tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) has roles in both cellular growth and metabolic signaling. Germline PTEN mutations cause a cancer-predisposition syndrome, providing an opportunity to study the effect of PTEN haploinsufficiency in humans.

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The New England journal of medicine, 367, 11, , 2012

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1113966

Open Access

Mosaic overgrowth with fibroadipose hyperplasia is caused by somatic activating mutations in PIK3CA.
MJ Lindhurst, VE Parker, F Payne, JC Sapp, S Rudge, J Harris, AM Witkowski, Q Zhang, MP Groeneveld, CE Scott, A Daly, SM Huson, LL Tosi, ML Cunningham, TN Darling, J Geer, Z Gucev, VR Sutton, C Tziotzios, AK Dixon, T Helliwell, S O'Rahilly, DB Savage, MJ Wakelam, I Barroso, LG Biesecker, RK Semple

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling pathway is critical for cellular growth and metabolism. Correspondingly, loss of function of PTEN, a negative regulator of PI3K, or activating mutations in AKT1, AKT2 or AKT3 have been found in distinct disorders featuring overgrowth or hypoglycemia. We performed exome sequencing of DNA from unaffected and affected cells from an individual with an unclassified syndrome of congenital progressive segmental overgrowth of fibrous and adipose tissue and bone and identified the cancer-associated mutation encoding p.His1047Leu in PIK3CA, the gene that encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K, only in affected cells. Sequencing of PIK3CA in ten additional individuals with overlapping syndromes identified either the p.His1047Leu alteration or a second cancer-associated alteration, p.His1047Arg, in nine cases. Affected dermal fibroblasts showed enhanced basal and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) generation and concomitant activation of downstream signaling relative to their unaffected counterparts. Our findings characterize a distinct overgrowth syndrome, biochemically demonstrate activation of PI3K signaling and thereby identify a rational therapeutic target.

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Nature genetics, 44, 8, , 2012

DOI: 10.1038/ng.2332

Open Access

Serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 and colorectal neoplasia: a community-based evaluation of a potential diagnostic test.
S Wilson, S Damery, DD Stocken, G Dowswell, R Holder, ST Ward, V Redman, MJ Wakelam, J James, FD Hobbs, T Ismail

A blood test may be a more acceptable routine colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test than faecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, and could be safer and cheaper. We evaluated the accuracy of a serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP9) test for CRC in a non-presenting symptomatic population.

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British journal of cancer, 106, 8, , 2012

DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2012.93

Open Access

Diacylglycerol kinase α controls RCP-dependent integrin trafficking to promote invasive migration.
E Rainero, PT Caswell, PA Muller, J Grindlay, MW McCaffrey, Q Zhang, MJ Wakelam, KH Vousden, A Graziani, JC Norman

Inhibition of αvβ3 integrin or expression of oncogenic mutants of p53 promote invasive cell migration by enhancing endosomal recycling of α5β1 integrin under control of the Rab11 effector Rab-coupling protein (RCP). In this paper, we show that diacylglycerol kinase α (DGK-α), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid (PA), was required for RCP to be mobilized to and tethered at the tips of invasive pseudopods and to allow RCP-dependent α5β1 recycling and the resulting invasiveness of tumor cells. Expression of a constitutive-active mutant of DGK-α drove RCP-dependent invasion in the absence of mutant p53 expression or αvβ3 inhibition, and conversely, an RCP mutant lacking the PA-binding C2 domain was not capable of being tethered at pseudopod tips. These data demonstrate that generation of PA downstream of DGK-α is essential to connect expression of mutant p53s or inhibition of αvβ3 to RCP and for this Rab11 effector to drive the trafficking of α5β1 that is required for tumor cell invasion through three-dimensional matrices.

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The Journal of cell biology, 196, 2, , 2012

DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201109112

Open Access

Methods for analyzing phosphoinositides using mass spectrometry.
MJ Wakelam, J Clark

The polyphosphoinositides are key signaling lipids whose levels are tightly regulated within cells. As with other cellular lipids multiple species exist with distinct acyl chain makeups. There are methods which analyze the phosphoinositides as their deacylated derivatives which cannot address these distinct forms. Lipidomic analysis of the polyphosphoinositides has been hampered by difficulties with extraction and problems associated with binding of the lipids to surfaces. This review outlines the available MS methodologies, highlighting the difficulties associated with each. However, at present, no single methodology is available that can successfully and reproducibly quantitate each inositol phospholipid.

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Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1811, 11, , 2011

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.09.004

A dual role for diacylglycerol kinase generated phosphatidic acid in autoantibody-induced neutrophil exocytosis.
NJ Holden, CO Savage, SP Young, MJ Wakelam, L Harper, JM Williams

Dysregulated release of neutrophil azurophilic granules causes increased tissue damage and amplified inflammation during autoimmune disease. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of small vessel vasculitis and promote adhesion and exocytosis in neutrophils. ANCAs activate specific signal transduction pathways in neutrophils that have the potential to be modulated therapeutically to prevent neutrophil activation by ANCAs. We have investigated a role for diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and its downstream product phosphatidic acid (PA) in ANCA-induced neutrophil exocytosis. Neutrophils incubated with the DGK inhibitor R59022, before treatment with ANCAs, exhibited a reduced capacity to release their azurophilic granules, demonstrated by a component release assay and flow cytometry. PA restored azurophilic granule release in DGK-inhibited neutrophils. Confocal microscopy revealed that R59022 did not inhibit translocation of granules, indicating a role for DGK during the process of granule fusion at the plasma membrane. In investigating possible mechanisms by which PA promotes neutrophil exocytosis, we demonstrated that exocytosis can only be restored in R59022-treated cells through simultaneous modulation of membrane fusion and increasing cytosolic calcium. PA and its associated pathways may represent viable drug targets to reduce tissue injury associated with ANCA-associated vasculitic diseases and other neutrophilic inflammatory disorders.

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Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.), 17, 11-12, , 2011

DOI: 10.2119/molmed.2011.00028

Open Access

PLD1 rather than PLD2 regulates phorbol-ester-, adhesion-dependent and Fc{gamma}-receptor-stimulated ROS production in neutrophils.
LJ Norton, Q Zhang, KM Saqib, H Schrewe, K Macura, KE Anderson, CW Lindsley, HA Brown, SA Rudge, MJ Wakelam

The signalling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) is generated by the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is catalysed by phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes. Neutrophils, important cells of the innate immune system, maintain the body's defence against infection. Previous studies have implicated PLD-generated PA in neutrophil function; these have relied heavily on the use of primary alcohols to act as inhibitors of PA production. The recent development of isoform-selective small molecule inhibitors and the generation of a knockout mouse model provide us with accurate tools to study the role of PLDs in neutrophil responses. We show that PLD1 is a regulator of phorbol-ester-, chemoattractant, adhesion-dependent and Fcγ-receptor-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils. Significantly we found that this role of PLD is isoform specific: the absence of PLD2 does not negatively affect these processes. Contrary to expectation, other functions required for an efficient immune response operate effectively in Pld2-deficient neutrophils or when both isoforms are inhibited pharmacologically. We conclude that although PLD1 does have important regulatory roles in neutrophils, the field has been confused by the use of primary alcohols; now that gold standard Pld-knockout mouse models are available, previous work might need to be reassessed.

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Journal of cell science, 124, Pt 12, , 2011

DOI: 10.1242/jcs.082008

Open Access

Quantification of PtdInsP3 molecular species in cells and tissues by mass spectrometry.
J Clark, KE Anderson, V Juvin, TS Smith, F Karpe, MJ Wakelam, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins

Class I phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms generate the intracellular signaling lipid, phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)). PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) regulates major aspects of cellular behavior, and the use of both genetic and pharmacological intervention has revealed important isoform-specific roles for PI3Ks in health and disease. Despite this interest, current methods for measuring PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) have major limitations, including insensitivity, reliance on radiolabeling, low throughput and an inability to resolve different fatty-acyl species. We introduce a methodology based on phosphate methylation coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to solve many of these problems and describe an integrated approach to quantify PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and related phosphoinositides (regio-isomers of PtdInsP and PtdInsP(2) are not resolved). This methodology can be used to quantify multiple fatty-acyl species of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) in unstimulated mouse and human cells (≥10(5)) or tissues (≥0.1 mg) and their increase upon appropriate stimulation.

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Nature methods, 8, 3, , 2011

DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.1564

Open Access

Assessment of novel combinations of biomarkers for the detection of colorectal cancer.
NJ Shimwell, W Wei, S Wilson, MJ Wakelam, T Ismail, T Iqbal, PJ Johnson, A Martin, DG Ward

Patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease and concomitant poor prognosis. The best known serum biomarker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is not recommended for screening because of its limited specificity and sensitivity. A number of other circulating proteins have been suggested to be diagnostically useful but individually none of these has proved to be of sufficient sensitivity or specificity to establish a role in routine clinical practice. Here, we test the hypothesis that combining several of these biomarkers will improve diagnostic efficacy.

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Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers, 7, 3, , 2010

DOI: 10.3233/CBM-2010-0155

Runx regulation of sphingolipid metabolism and survival signaling.
A Kilbey, A Terry, A Jenkins, G Borland, Q Zhang, MJ Wakelam, ER Cameron, JC Neil

The Runx genes (Runx1, 2, and 3) regulate cell fate in development and can operate as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors in cancer. The oncogenic potential of ectopic Runx expression has been shown in transgenic mice that develop lymphoma in potent synergy with overexpressed Myc, and in established fibroblasts that display altered morphology and increased tumorigenicity. Candidate oncogenic functions of overexpressed Runx genes include resistance to apoptosis in response to intrinsic and extrinsic stresses. In a search for gene targets responsible for this aspect of Runx phenotype, we have identified three key enzymes in sphingolipid metabolism (Sgpp1, Ugcg, and St3gal5/Siat9) as direct targets for Runx transcriptional regulation in a manner consistent with survival and apoptosis resistance. Consistent with these changes in gene expression, mass spectrometric analysis showed that ectopic Runx reduces intracellular long-chain ceramides in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and elevated extracellular sphingosine 1 phosphate. Runx expression also opposed the activation of c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase and p38(MAPK), key mediators of ceramide-induced death, and suppressed the onset of apoptosis in response to exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha. The survival advantage conferred by ectopic Runx could be partially recapitulated by exogenous sphingosine 1 phosphate and was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of p38(MAPK). These results reveal a novel link between transcription factor oncogenes and lipid signaling pathways involved in cancer cell survival and chemoresistance.

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Cancer research, 70, 14, , 2010

DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0726

Open Access

Cross-talk between phospholipase D and MAP kinases activities.
MJ Wakelam, GS McNee, SA Rudge

Advances in enzyme regulation, 50, 1, , 2010

DOI: 10.1016/j.advenzreg.2009.10.032

Fast targeted multidimensional NMR metabolomics of colorectal cancer.
C Ludwig, DG Ward, A Martin, MR Viant, T Ismail, PJ Johnson, MJ Wakelam, UL Günther

The study of small molecules in body fluids has become an important tool to monitor the state of biological organisms. Applications range from model studies using cell lines to applications where human body fluids are used to monitor disease states or drug responses. NMR spectroscopy has been an important tool for metabolomics although severe overlap of signals has limited the number of compounds, which can be unambiguously identified and quantified. Therefore, deconvolution of NMR spectra is one of the greatest challenges for NMR-based metabolomics. This has commonly been achieved by using multidimensional spectra that have the disadvantage of requiring significantly longer acquisition times. Recently, a number of methods have been described to record NMR spectra much faster. Here, we explore the use of Hadamard-encoded TOCSY spectra to simultaneously select multiple lines from crowded NMR spectra of blood serum samples to acquire pseudo-two-dimensional spectra in minutes which would otherwise require many hours. The potential of this approach is demonstrated for the detection of a signature for colorectal cancer from human blood samples.

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Magnetic resonance in chemistry : MRC, 47 Suppl 1, , , 2009

DOI: 10.1002/mrc.2519

Inter-regulatory dynamics of phospholipase D and the actin cytoskeleton.
SA Rudge, MJ Wakelam

Phospholipase D activity has been extensively implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Through this regulation the enzyme controls a number of physiological functions such as cell migration and adhesion and, it also is implicated in the regulation of membrane trafficking. The two phospholipase Ds are closely implicated with the control of the ARF and Rho families of small GTPases. In this article it is proposed that PLD2 plays the role of 'master regulator' and in an ill-defined manner regulates Rho function, PLD1 activity is downstream of this activation, however the generated phosphatidic acid controls changes in cytoskeletal organisation through its regulation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase activity.

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Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1791, 9, , 2009

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2009.04.008

Rhabdomere biogenesis in Drosophila photoreceptors is acutely sensitive to phosphatidic acid levels.
P Raghu, E Coessens, M Manifava, P Georgiev, T Pettitt, E Wood, I Garcia-Murillas, H Okkenhaug, D Trivedi, Q Zhang, A Razzaq, O Zaid, M Wakelam, CJ O'Kane, N Ktistakis

Phosphatidic acid (PA) is postulated to have both structural and signaling functions during membrane dynamics in animal cells. In this study, we show that before a critical time period during rhabdomere biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, elevated levels of PA disrupt membrane transport to the apical domain. Lipidomic analysis shows that this effect is associated with an increase in the abundance of a single, relatively minor molecular species of PA. These transport defects are dependent on the activation state of Arf1. Transport defects via PA generated by phospholipase D require the activity of type I phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4 phosphate 5 kinase, are phenocopied by knockdown of PI 4 kinase, and are associated with normal endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. We propose that PA levels are critical for apical membrane transport events required for rhabdomere biogenesis.

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The Journal of cell biology, 185, 1, , 2009

DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200807027

Open Access

Establishing the added benefit of measuring MMP9 in FOB positive patients as a part of the Wolverhampton colorectal cancer screening programme.
Wilson S, Taskila T, Ismail T, Stocken DD, Martin A, Redman V, Wakelam M, Perry I, Hobbs R

Bowel cancer is common and a major cause of death. The NHS is currently rolling out a national bowel cancer screening programme that aims to cover the entire population by 2010. The programme will be based on the Faecal Occult Blood test (FOBt) that reduces mortality from colon cancer by 16%. However, FOB testing has a relatively low positive predictive value, with associated unnecessary cost, risk and anxiety from subsequent investigation, and is unacceptable to a proportion of the target population. Increased levels of an enzyme called matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) have been found to be associated with colorectal cancer, and this can be measured from a blood sample. MMP9 has potential for detecting those at risk of having colorectal cancer. The aim of this study is to assess whether MMP9 estimation enhances the predictive value of a positive FOBt.

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BMC cancer, 9, 1471-2407, , 2009


Open Access

Lipid systems and techniques. Introduction.
Wakelam MJ

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 462, 1064-3745, , 2009


Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids.
E Fahy, S Subramaniam, RC Murphy, M Nishijima, CR Raetz, T Shimizu, F Spener, G van Meer, MJ Wakelam, EA Dennis

In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a "Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids" based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is extensible, flexible, and scalable. This classification system, which is compatible with contemporary databasing and informatics needs, has now been accepted internationally and widely adopted. In response to considerable attention and requests from lipid researchers from around the globe and in a variety of fields, the comprehensive classification system has undergone significant revisions over the last few years to more fully represent lipid structures from a wider variety of sources and to provide additional levels of detail as necessary. The details of this classification system are reviewed and updated and are presented here, along with revisions to its suggested nomenclature and structure-drawing recommendations for lipids.

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Journal of lipid research, 50 Suppl, , , 2009

DOI: 10.1194/jlr.R800095-JLR200

Open Access

Proteomic profiling of urine for the detection of colon cancer.
Ward DG, Nyangoma S, Joy H, Hamilton E, Wei W, Tselepis C, Steven N, Wakelam MJ, Johnson PJ, Ismail T, Martin A

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the developed world. To date, no blood or stool biomarkers with both high sensitivity and specificity for potentially curable early stage disease have been validated for clinical use. SELDI and MALDI profiling are being used increasingly to search for biomarkers in both blood and urine. Both techniques provide information predominantly on the low molecular weight proteome (<15 kDa). There have been several reports that colorectal cancer is associated with changes in the serum proteome that are detectable by SELDI and we hypothesised that proteomic changes would also be detectable in urine.

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Proteome science, 6, 1477-5956, , 2008


Open Access

An intracellular motif of GLUT4 regulates fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles.
Heyward CA, Pettitt TR, Leney SE, Welsh GI, Tavaré JM, Wakelam MJ

Insulin stimulates glucose uptake by adipocytes through increasing translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. Fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles at the cell surface is thought to involve phospholipase D activity, generating the signalling lipid phosphatidic acid, although the mechanism of action is not yet clear.

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BMC cell biology, 9, 1471-2121, , 2008


Open Access

Determination of phospholipase D, lysophospholipase D and DG kinase signaling pathways in disease states by mass spectrometry.
MJ Wakelam, DJ Powner, TR Pettitt

Advances in enzyme regulation, 48, , , 2008

DOI: 10.1016/j.advenzreg.2008.02.007

Lipidomic analysis of signaling pathways.
Wakelam MJ, Pettitt TR, Postle AD

This chapter outlines methods that can be applied to determine the levels of lipids in cells and tissues. In particular, the methods focus upon the extraction and analysis of those lipids critical for monitoring signal transduction pathways. The methods address the analysis of the phosphoinositides, the lipid agonists lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate, and the neutral lipid messengers diacylglycerol and ceramide. Additionally, because of the increasing need to determine the dynamics of signaling, the analysis of phospholipids synthesis using stable isotope methods is described. The use of these methods as described or adaptation to permit both approaches should allow investigators to determine changes in signaling lipids and to better understand such processes in most cell types. The increasing appreciation of the central roles played by lipid signaling pathways has dispelled the misconception that lipids are inert structural components that are involved solely in keeping a cell intact. Advances in our understanding of cell-signaling pathways have identified particular lipids that act to regulate the functions of a number of proteins either by controlling enzyme activity directly, or by localizing proteins to particular intracellular compartments where they perform a specialized role. These lipid-binding domains (e.g., PH, PX, FYVE) have been found in many proteins, and considerable detail is recorded of the structural basis of lipid protein interaction. Additional lipid-binding domains exist, which remain less well characterized (e.g., those that bind phosphatidic acid [PA] or ceramide); however, the important regulatory roles that these lipids play and the pathways involving these messengers are increasingly appreciated. While the downstream targets are thus being defined, the actual changes in lipid concentration in a stimulated cell or membrane are less characterized. The primary reason for this lack has been a deficiency in methodology. Much of the reported studies of lipid messengers in stimulated cells have depended upon monitoring changes in radio-labeled cells. Many well-documented problems are associated with this type of methodology, including lack of isotopic equilibrium, distinct pools with different turnover rates, and inadequate separation of radio-labeled metabolites; however, much important information has been generated. The second approach has been to make use of the lipid-binding properties of the target protein domains and to generate a tagged fusion protein, generally GFP, which permits identification of a region rich in a signaling lipid (Guillou et al., 2007). This has proved useful in monitoring PI-3-kinase activation in stimulated cells; however, considerable caveats must be raised, not least the problems associated with lipid specificity and the fact that many of these domains have associated protein-binding regions that can compromise the findings. A further problem associated with these two methodologies is that they tend to group lipids together and take no account of the multiple acyl chain structures that occur in all lipids. These concerns point to the need to determine actual changes in lipid compositions. Until relatively recently, such an analysis was unachievable; however, advances in both chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry (MS) have permitted the development of lipidomic analysis. This chapter outlines a number of methods that allow determination of changes in signaling lipids. Adaptation of the methods here for the analysis of other molecules should be relatively straightforward in the future. Much of the lipidomic research in the United Kingdom is focused upon signaling lipidomics, with particular foci upon phosphoinositide-related signaling in Birmingham and Cambridge (Wakelam) and London (Larijani), upon eicosanoids in Cardiff (O'Donnell), and steroids in London (Griffiths). Meanwhile, the use of stable isotopes has been particularly developed in Southampton (Postle).

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Methods in enzymology, 432, 0076-6879, , 2007


Elevated serum matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) concentration predicts the presence of colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic patients.
Hurst NG, Stocken DD, Wilson S, Keh C, Wakelam MJ, Ismail T

Early detection of polyps or colorectal carcinoma can reduce colorectal carcinoma-associated deaths. Previous studies have demonstrated raised serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (sMMP-9) in a range of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sMMP-9 levels in identifying colorectal neoplasia. Consenting patients donated a blood sample and were assessed by proforma-led history and physical examination. Samples were analysed for sMMP-9 concentration (enzyme-linked immuno-sorbant assay) and compared to final diagnoses. Logistic regression modelling determined independent factors associated with neoplasia. A total of 365 patients were recruited of whom 300 were analysed, including 46 normal controls. A total of 27 significant adenomas and 63 malignancies were identified. The median sMMP-9 concentration was 443 ng ml(-1) (IQR: 219-782; mean: 546). Patients with neoplasia had significantly elevated sMMP-9 levels (P<0.001). Logistic regression modelling identified elevated log(sMMP-9) as the most significant predictor of neoplasia (chi(2)=38.33, P<0.001). Other significant factors were age, sex, smoking history, abdominal pain and weight loss. The model accurately predicted neoplasia in 77.3% of cases. Sensitivity and specificity were 77.9 and 77.1%. sMMP-9 estimation can accurately stratify patient to low- or high-risk cohorts. Serum sampling is a potential means of avoiding unnecessary colonoscopy and reducing patient anxiety, iatrogenic morbidity and mortality, and cost.

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British journal of cancer, 97, 0007-0920, , 2007


Open Access

MyosinIIa contractility is required for maintenance of platelet structure during spreading on collagen and contributes to thrombus stability.
Calaminus SD, Auger JM, McCarty OJ, Wakelam MJ, Machesky LM, Watson SP

MyosinIIs are adenosine triphosphate-driven molecular motors that form part of a cell's contractile machinery. They are activated by phosphorylation of their light chains, by either activation of myosin light chain (MLC) kinase or inhibition of MLC phosphatase via Rho kinase (ROCK). MyosinIIa phosphorylation underlies platelet rounding and stress fiber formation.

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Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH, 5, 1538-7933, , 2007


Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-stimulated neutrophil adhesion depends on diacylglycerol kinase-catalyzed phosphatidic acid formation.
JM Williams, TR Pettitt, W Powell, J Grove, CO Savage, MJ Wakelam

Patients with certain forms of systematic vasculitis, such as Wegener's granulomatosis, have circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). These inappropriately stimulate circulating neutrophils adhere to and thereby obstruct small vessels. This, together with ANCA-induced degranulation and an oxidative burst, leads to local tissue damage. The signaling pathways that are activated by ANCA IgG are distinct from those that are involved in normal neutrophil activation. This study shows that diacylglycerol kinase is selectively activated by ANCA and that the generated phosphatidic acid is responsible for promoting neutrophil adhesion, in part through integrin activation. The data presented point to diacylglycerol kinase alpha as a novel but selective target for the development of drugs to treat this potentially fatal disorder.

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Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN, 18, 4, , 2007

DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2006090973

Open Access

Stable adhesion and migration of human neutrophils requires phospholipase D-mediated activation of the integrin CD11b/CD18.
Powner DJ, Pettitt TR, Anderson R, Nash GB, Wakelam MJ

The pathways regulating integrin-mediated adhesion during neutrophil migration are incompletely defined. Using a flow-based model in which human neutrophils rolling on P-selectin were activated to migrate by the chemoattractant peptide fMLP, we investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD). fMLP-stimulated PLD generation of phosphatidate (PtdOH); while inhibition of PtdOH production with butan-1-ol had no effect on the initial immobilisation of rolling neutrophils (supported by activation of constitutively surface-expressed beta(2)-integrin CD11b/CD18) it impaired longer-term stability of adhesion and reduced the rate of migration (supported by activation of de novo-exocytosed CD11b/CD18). PtdOH regulated these processes by controlling activation of exocytosed CD11b/CD18, and appeared to act by directly stimulating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase type I to generate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)). Cell-permeable PtdIns(4,5)P(2) recovered migration of neutrophils after PLD inhibition; PtdIns(4,5)P(2) appeared to act by promoting talin binding to CD18 and hence activating CD11b/CD18, as migration was inhibited when neutrophils were loaded with peptides previously shown to block the interaction between PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and talin or talin and CD18. Thus, these data indicate that PLD-synthesised PtdOH stimulates the generation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2), which in turn mediates talin binding to, and activation of, CD11b/CD18 required for neutrophil stable adhesion and migration.

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Molecular immunology, 44, 0161-5890, , 2007


Activation of vascular adhesion protein-1 on liver endothelium results in an NF-kappaB-dependent increase in lymphocyte adhesion.
Lalor PF, Sun PJ, Weston CJ, Martin-Santos A, Wakelam MJ, Adams DH

Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an adhesion molecule and amine oxidase that is expressed at high levels in the human liver. It promotes leukocyte adhesion to the liver in vivo and drives lymphocyte transmigration across hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in vitro. We report that in addition to supporting leukocyte adhesion, provision of specific substrate to VAP-1 results in hepatic endothelial cell activation, which can be abrogated by treatment with the enzyme inhibitor semicarbazide. VAP-1-mediated activation was rapid; dependent upon nuclear factor-kappaB, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways; and led to upregulation of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and secretion of the chemokine CXCL8. This response resulted in enhanced lymphocyte adhesion, was restricted to hepatic endothelial cells that expressed VAP-1, and was not observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

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Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 45, 0270-9139, , 2007


A comprehensive proteomics and genomics analysis reveals novel transmembrane proteins in human platelets and mouse megakaryocytes including G6b-B, a novel immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif protein.
Senis YA, Tomlinson MG, García A, Dumon S, Heath VL, Herbert J, Cobbold SP, Spalton JC, Ayman S, Antrobus R, Zitzmann N, Bicknell R, Frampton J, Authi KS, Martin A, Wakelam MJ, Watson SP

The platelet surface is poorly characterized due to the low abundance of many membrane proteins and the lack of specialist tools for their investigation. In this study we identified novel human platelet and mouse megakaryocyte membrane proteins using specialist proteomics and genomics approaches. Three separate methods were used to enrich platelet surface proteins prior to identification by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry: lectin affinity chromatography, biotin/NeutrAvidin affinity chromatography, and free flow electrophoresis. Many known, abundant platelet surface transmembrane proteins and several novel proteins were identified using each receptor enrichment strategy. In total, two or more unique peptides were identified for 46, 68, and 22 surface membrane, intracellular membrane, and membrane proteins of unknown subcellular localization, respectively. The majority of these were single transmembrane proteins. To complement the proteomics studies, we analyzed the transcriptome of a highly purified preparation of mature primary mouse megakaryocytes using serial analysis of gene expression in view of the increasing importance of mutant mouse models in establishing protein function in platelets. This approach identified all of the major classes of platelet transmembrane receptors, including multitransmembrane proteins. Strikingly 17 of the 25 most megakaryocyte-specific genes (relative to 30 other serial analysis of gene expression libraries) were transmembrane proteins, illustrating the unique nature of the megakaryocyte/platelet surface. The list of novel plasma membrane proteins identified using proteomics includes the immunoglobulin superfamily member G6b, which undergoes extensive alternate splicing. Specific antibodies were used to demonstrate expression of the G6b-B isoform, which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif. G6b-B undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and association with the SH2 domain-containing phosphatase, SHP-1, in stimulated platelets suggesting that it may play a novel role in limiting platelet activation.

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Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP, 6, 1535-9476, , 2007


Open Access

PLCgamma is enriched on poly-phosphoinositide-rich vesicles to control nuclear envelope assembly.
Byrne RD, Garnier-Lhomme M, Han K, Dowicki M, Michael N, Totty N, Zhendre V, Cho A, Pettitt TR, Wakelam MJ, Poccia DL, Larijani B

Nuclear envelope assembly is an essential event in each cell cycle but the proteins and lipids involved in its regulation remain mostly unknown. Assembly involves membrane fusions but neither specific SNAREs nor Rab GTPases have been identified in its control. We report that a precursor membrane population (MV1) required for NE assembly has a unique lipid composition consisting prominently of poly-phosphatidylinositides. The lipid composition was determined by adapting HPLC electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry to phosphoinositide analysis, revealing the capacity of this technique to document dynamic lipid transitions of functional importance in natural membrane populations. MV1 is >100-fold enriched in endogenous PLCgamma and >25-fold enriched in the PLC substrate phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) compared to the second membrane population, derived largely from endoplasmic reticulum (ER), that contributes most of the NE. During NE formation PLCgamma becomes transiently phosphorylated at the tyrosine 783 site indicative of its activation. In addition specific inhibition of PLCgamma blocks nuclear envelope formation. In vivo, PLCgamma is concentrated on vesicles of similar size to purified MV1. These associate with nuclei during the period of NE formation and are distinct from ER membranes. The unprecedented concentration of PLCgamma and its substrate PtdInsP2 in a subset of membranes that binds to only two regions of the nucleus, and activation of PLCgamma by GTP during initial stages of NE formation provide a mechanism for temporal control of NE assembly and offer an explanation for how such a process of membrane fusion can be spatially regulated.

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Cellular signalling, 19, 0898-6568, , 2007


Evaluation of the accuracy of serum MMP-9 as a test for colorectal cancer in a primary care population.
Wilson S, Wakelam MJ, Hobbs RF, Ryan AV, Dunn JA, Redman VD, Patrick F, Colbourne L, Martin A, Ismail T

Bowel cancer is common and is a major cause of death. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials estimates that screening for colorectal cancer using faecal occult blood (FOB) test reduces mortality from colorectal cancer by 16%. However, FOB testing has a low positive predictive value, with associated unnecessary cost, risk and anxiety from subsequent investigation, and is unacceptable to a proportion of the target population. Increased levels of an enzyme called matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) have been found to be associated with colorectal cancer, and this can be measured from a blood sample. Serum MMP-9 is potentially an accurate, low risk and cost-effective population screening tool. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of serum MMP-9 as a test for colorectal cancer in a primary care population.

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BMC cancer, 6, 1471-2407, , 2006


Open Access

Securin induces genetic instability in colorectal cancer by inhibiting double-stranded DNA repair activity.
Kim DS, Franklyn JA, Smith VE, Stratford AL, Pemberton HN, Warfield A, Watkinson JC, Ishmail T, Wakelam MJ, McCabe CJ

Genetic instability (GI) is a hallmark feature of tumor development. Securin, also known as pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), is a mitotic checkpoint protein which is highly expressed in numerous cancers, is associated with tumor invasiveness, and induces GI in thyroid cells. We used fluorescence inter-simple sequence repeat PCR to assess GI caused primarily by DNA breakage events in 19 colorectal tumors. GI values ranged significantly, with Dukes' stage C&D colorectal tumors exhibiting greater GI and higher securin expression than Dukes' stage A&B tumors. Consistent with these findings, we observed a dose-dependent increase in GI in HCT116 cells in response to securin overexpression, as well as in non-transformed human fibroblasts. As securin has been implicated in a novel DNA repair pathway in fission yeast, we investigated its potential role in chemotoxic DNA damage response pathways in mammalian cells, using host cell reactivation assays. Securin overexpression in HCT116 cells inhibited etoposide-induced double-stranded DNA damage repair activity, and repressed Ku heterodimer function. Additionally, we observed that securin and Ku70 showed a reciprocal cytosol-nuclear translocation in response to etoposide-induced dsDNA damage. Our data suggest that, by repressing Ku70 activity and inhibiting the non-homologous end-joining dsDNA repair pathway, securin may be a critical gene in the development of GI in colorectal cancer.

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Carcinogenesis, 28, 0143-3334, , 2007


Open Access

A prospective study to assess the value of MMP-9 in improving the appropriateness of urgent referrals for colorectal cancer.
Ryan AV, Wilson S, Wakelam MJ, Warmington SA, Dunn JA, Hobbs RF, Martin A, Ismail T

Bowel cancer is common and is a major cause of death. Most people with bowel symptoms who meet the criteria for urgent referral to secondary care will not be found to have bowel cancer, and some people who are found to have cancer will have been referred routinely rather than urgently. If general practitioners could better identify people who were likely to have bowel cancer or conditions that may lead to bowel cancer, the pressure on hospital clinics may be reduced, enabling these patients to be seen more quickly. Increased levels of an enzyme called matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) have been found to be associated with such conditions, and this can be measured from a blood sample. This study aims to find out whether measuring MMP-9 levels could improve the appropriateness of urgent referrals for patients with bowel symptoms.

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BMC cancer, 6, 1471-2407, , 2006


Open Access

Autotaxin, a secreted lysophospholipase D, is essential for blood vessel formation during development.
van Meeteren LA, Ruurs P, Stortelers C, Bouwman P, van Rooijen MA, Pradère JP, Pettit TR, Wakelam MJ, Saulnier-Blache JS, Mummery CL, Moolenaar WH, Jonkers J

Autotaxin (ATX), or nucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 2, is a secreted lysophospholipase D that promotes cell migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis. ATX generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid mitogen and motility factor that acts on several G protein-coupled receptors. Here we report that ATX-deficient mice die at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) with profound vascular defects in yolk sac and embryo resembling the Galpha13 knockout phenotype. Furthermore, at E8.5, ATX-deficient embryos showed allantois malformation, neural tube defects, and asymmetric headfolds. The onset of these abnormalities coincided with increased expression of ATX and LPA receptors in normal embryos. ATX heterozygous mice appear healthy but show half-normal ATX activity and plasma LPA levels. Our results reveal a critical role for ATX in vascular development, indicate that ATX is the major LPA-producing enzyme in vivo, and suggest that the vascular defects in ATX-deficient embryos may be explained by loss of LPA signaling through Galpha13.

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Molecular and cellular biology, 26, 0270-7306, , 2006


Open Access

Identification of serum biomarkers for colon cancer by proteomic analysis.
Ward DG, Suggett N, Cheng Y, Wei W, Johnson H, Billingham LJ, Ismail T, Wakelam MJ, Johnson PJ, Martin A

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is often diagnosed at a late stage with concomitant poor prognosis. Early detection greatly improves prognosis; however, the invasive, unpleasant and inconvenient nature of current diagnostic procedures limits their applicability. No serum-based test is currently of sufficient sensitivity or specificity for widespread use. In the best currently available blood test, carcinoembryonic antigen exhibits low sensitivity and specificity particularly in the setting of early disease. Hence, there is great need for new biomarkers for early detection of CRC. We have used surface-enhanced laser desorbtion/ionisation (SELDI) to investigate the serum proteome of 62 CRC patients and 31 noncancer subjects. We have identified proteins (complement C3a des-arg, alpha1-antitrypsin and transferrin) with diagnostic potential. Artificial neural networks trained using only the intensities of the SELDI peaks corresponding to identified proteins were able to classify the patients used in this study with 95% sensitivity and 91% specificity.

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British journal of cancer, 94, 0007-0920, , 2006


Open Access

Analysis of intact phosphoinositides in biological samples.
TR Pettitt, SK Dove, A Lubben, SD Calaminus, MJ Wakelam

It is now apparent that each of the known, naturally occurring polyphosphoinositides, the phosphatidylinositol monophosphates (PtdIns3P, PtdIns4P, PtdIns5P), phosphatidylinositol bisphosphates [PtdIns(3,4)P(2), PtdIns(3,5)P(2), PtdIns(4,5)P(2)], and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)], have distinct roles in regulating many cellular events, including intracellular signaling, migration, and vesicular trafficking. Traditional identification techniques require [(32)P]inorganic phosphate or [(3)H]inositol radiolabeling, acidified lipid extraction, deacylation, and ion-exchange head group separation, which are time-consuming and not suitable for samples in which radiolabeling is impractical, thus greatly restricting the study of these lipids in many physiologically relevant systems. Thus, we have developed a novel, high-efficiency, buffered citrate extraction methodology to minimize acid-induced phosphoinositide degradation, together with a high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) protocol using an acetonitrile-chloroform-methanol-water-ethylamine gradient with a microbore silica column that enables the identification and quantification of all phosphoinositides in a sample. The liquid chromatograph is sufficient to resolve PtdInsP(3) and PtdInsP(2) regioisomers; however, the PtdInsP regioisomers require a combination of LC and diagnostic fragmentation to MS(3). Data are presented using this approach for the analysis of phosphoinositides in human platelet and yeast samples.

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Journal of lipid research, 47, 7, , 2006

DOI: 10.1194/jlr.D600004-JLR200

Open Access

lazaro encodes a lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase that regulates phosphatidylinositol turnover during Drosophila phototransduction.
I Garcia-Murillas, T Pettitt, E Macdonald, H Okkenhaug, P Georgiev, D Trivedi, B Hassan, M Wakelam, P Raghu

An essential step in Drosophila phototransduction is the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate PI(4,5)P2 by phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) to generate a second messenger that opens the light-activated channels TRP and TRPL. Although the identity of this messenger remains unknown, recent evidence has implicated diacylglycerol kinase (DGK), encoded by rdgA, as a key enzyme that regulates its levels, mediating both amplification and response termination. In this study, we demonstrate that lazaro (laza) encodes a lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (LPP) that functions during phototransduction. We demonstrate that the synergistic activity of laza and rdgA regulates response termination during phototransduction. Analysis of retinal phospholipids revealed a reduction in phosphatidic acid (PA) levels and an associated reduction in phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels. Together our results demonstrate the contribution of PI depletion to the rdgA phenotype and provide evidence that depletion of PI and its metabolites might be a key signal for TRP channel activation in vivo.

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Neuron, 49, 4, , 2006

DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.02.001

Open Access

Assays to study phospholipase D regulation by inositol phospholipids and ADP-ribosylation factor 6.
Powner DJ, Pettitt TR, Wakelam MJ

Phospholipase D (PLD) is an enzyme implicated in the regulation of both exocytic and endocytic vesicle trafficking as well as many other processes. Consistent with this, the small GTPase Arf6 and regulated changes in inositol phospholipids levels are two factors that regulate both PLD and vesicle trafficking. Here we describe three methodologies through which the activation of PLD by Arf6 and inositol phospholipids may be investigated. The first method described is an in vitro protocol that allows the analysis of purified proteins or cell lysates. Furthermore, this protocol can be used to analyze the effects of different inositol phospholipids by changing the composition of the substrate vesicle. The major advantage of this protocol lies in the ability to analyze the effects of direct interactions on PLD activation by using pure proteins and lipids. The other two methods are in vivo protocols for the analysis of PLD activation in response to extracellular stimuli. Modification of cellular composition using overexpression/deletion or knockout of specific genes can be utilized with these protocols to characterize PLD activation pathways. The first of these methods uses the detection of radiolabeled PLD products and can be used for most cell types whereas the second of these two protocols is used to measure PLD products when radiolabeling of cells is not possible, such as freshly isolated cells that will not survive long enough to attain radiochemical equilibrium.

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Methods in enzymology, 404, 0076-6879, , 2005


Diacylglycerol induces fusion of nuclear envelope membrane precursor vesicles.
Barona T, Byrne RD, Pettitt TR, Wakelam MJ, Larijani B, Poccia DL

Purified membrane vesicles isolated from sea urchin eggs form nuclear envelopes around sperm nuclei following GTP hydrolysis in the presence of cytosol. A low density subfraction of these vesicles (MV1), highly enriched in phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), is required for nuclear envelope formation. Membrane fusion of MV1 with a second fraction that contributes most of the nuclear envelope can be initiated without GTP by an exogenous bacterial PtdIns-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) which hydrolyzes PtdIns to form diacylglycerides and inositol 1-phosphate. This PI-PLC hydrolyzes a subset of sea urchin membrane vesicle PtdIns into diglycerides enriched in long chain, polyunsaturated species as revealed by a novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Large unilammelar vesicles (LUVs) enriched in PtdIns can substitute for MV1 in PI-PLC induced nuclear envelope formation. Moreover, MV1 prehydrolyzed with PI-PLC and washed to remove inositols leads to spontaneous nuclear envelope formation with MV2 without further PI-PLC treatment. LUVs enriched in diacylglycerol mimic prehydrolyzed MV1. These results indicate that production of membrane-destabilizing diglycerides in membranes enriched in PtdIns may facilitate membrane fusion in a natural membrane system and suggest that MV1, which binds only to two places on the sperm nucleus, may initiate fusion locally.

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The Journal of biological chemistry, 280, 0021-9258, , 2005


Open Access

Phospholipase D2 stimulates integrin-mediated adhesion via phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Igamma b.
Powner DJ, Payne RM, Pettitt TR, Giudici ML, Irvine RF, Wakelam MJ

Cellular adhesion can be regulated by, as yet, poorly defined intracellular signalling events. Phospholipase D enzymes generate the messenger lipid phosphatidate and here we demonstrate that suppression of this reaction inhibits cellular adhesion. This effect was reversed by the addition of cell-permeable analogues of either phosphatidate or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. By contrast, neither diacylglycerol nor lysophosphatidic acid were able to reverse this effect suggesting that phosphatidate itself acts directly on a target protein(s) to regulate adhesion rather than as the result of its conversion to either of these metabolite lipids. Antibodies that block beta1 and beta2 integrin-substrate interactions inhibited adhesion stimulated by both phosphatidate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate indicating that these lipids regulate beta1 and beta2 integrin-mediated adhesion. In vivo, these lipids can be generated by phospholipase D2 and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Igamma b, respectively, and over-expression of catalytically-functional forms of these enzymes dose-dependently stimulated adhesion while siRNA depletion of PLD2 levels inhibited adhesion. Furthermore the ability of over-expressed phospholipase D2 to stimulate adhesion was inhibited by a dominant-negative version of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Igamma b. Consistent with this, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Igamma b-mediated adhesion was dependent upon phospholipase D2's product, phosphatidate indicating that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Igamma b is downstream of, and necessary for, phospholipase D2's regulation of adhesion. It is likely that this phospholipase D2-generated phosphatidate directly stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Igamma b to generate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate as this mechanism has previously been demonstrated in vitro. Thus, our data indicates that during the initial stages of adhesion, phospholipase D2-derived phosphatidate stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Igamma b to generate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and that consequently this inositol phospholipid promotes adhesion through its regulation of cell-surface integrins.

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Journal of cell science, 118, 0021-9533, , 2005


Open Access

The search for new targets for cancer chemotherapeutics.
Cook SJ, Wakelam M

Current opinion in pharmacology, 5, 1471-4892, , 2005


Induction of autotaxin by the Epstein-Barr virus promotes the growth and survival of Hodgkin lymphoma cells.
Baumforth KR, Flavell JR, Reynolds GM, Davies G, Pettit TR, Wei W, Morgan S, Stankovic T, Kishi Y, Arai H, Nowakova M, Pratt G, Aoki J, Wakelam MJ, Young LS, Murray PG

A proportion of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma carry Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus, in their tumor cells. Although it is generally assumed that EBV contributes to the malignant phenotype of Hodgkin lymphoma cells, direct evidence in support of this is lacking. Here we show that EBV infection of Hodgkin lymphoma cells results in the induction of autotaxin, a secreted tumor-associated factor with lysophospholipase-D activity. Up-regulation of autotaxin increased the generation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and led to the enhanced growth and survival of Hodgkin lymphoma cells, whereas specific down-regulation of autotaxin decreased LPA levels and reduced cell growth and viability. In lymphoma tissues, autotaxin expression was mainly restricted to CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma; in the latter, high levels of autotaxin were strongly associated with EBV positivity (P = .006). Our results identify the induction of autotaxin and the subsequent generation of LPA as key molecular events that mediate the EBV-induced growth and survival of Hodgkin lymphoma cells and suggest that this pathway may provide opportunities for novel therapeutic intervention.

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Blood, 106, 0006-4971, , 2005


Open Access

Exocytosis of CTLA-4 is dependent on phospholipase D and ADP ribosylation factor-1 and stimulated during activation of regulatory T cells.
Mead KI, Zheng Y, Manzotti CN, Perry LC, Liu MK, Burke F, Powner DJ, Wakelam MJ, Sansom DM

CTLA-4 is an essential protein in the regulation of T cell responses that interacts with two ligands found on the surface of APCs (CD80 and CD86). CTLA-4 is itself poorly expressed on the T cell surface and is predominantly localized to intracellular compartments. We have studied the mechanisms involved in the delivery of CTLA-4 to the cell surface using a model Chinese hamster ovary cell system and compared this with activated and regulatory human T cells. We have shown that expression of CTLA-4 at the plasma membrane (PM) is controlled by exocytosis of CTLA-4-containing vesicles and followed by rapid endocytosis. Using selective inhibitors and dominant negative mutants, we have shown that exocytosis of CTLA-4 is dependent on the activity of the GTPase ADP ribosylation factor-1 and on phospholipase D activity. CTLA-4 was identified in a perinuclear compartment overlapping with the cis-Golgi marker GM-130 but did not colocalize strongly with lysosomal markers such as CD63 and lysosome-associated membrane protein. In regulatory T cells, activation of phospholipase D was sufficient to trigger release of CTLA-4 to the PM but did not inhibit endocytosis. Taken together, these data suggest that CTLA-4 may be stored in a specialized compartment in regulatory T cells that can be triggered rapidly for deployment to the PM in a phospholipase D- and ADP ribosylation factor-1-dependent manner.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 174, 0022-1767, , 2005


Open Access

Phospholipase D activity is essential for actin localization and actin-based motility in Dictyostelium.
Zouwail S, Pettitt TR, Dove SK, Chibalina MV, Powner DJ, Haynes L, Wakelam MJ, Insall RH

PLD (phospholipase D) activity catalyses the generation of the lipid messenger phosphatidic acid, which has been implicated in a number of cellular processes, particularly the regulation of membrane traffic. In the present study, we report that disruption of PLD signalling causes unexpectedly profound effects on the actin-based motility of Dictyostelium. Cells in which PLD activity is inhibited by butan-1-ol show a complete loss of actin-based structures, accompanied by relocalization of F-actin into small clusters, and eventually the nucleus, without a visible fall in levels of F-actin. Addition of exogenous phosphatidic acid reverses the effects of butan-1-ol, confirming that these effects are caused by inhibition of PLD. Loss of motility correlates with complete inhibition of endocytosis and a reduction in phagocytosis. Inhibition of PLD caused a major decrease in the synthesis of PtdIns(4,5)P2, which could again be reversed by exogenously applied phosphatidic acid. Thus the essential role of PLD signalling in both motility and endocytosis appears to be mediated directly via regulation of PtdIns(4)P kinase activity. This implies that localized PLD-regulated synthesis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 is essential for Dictyostelium actin function.

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The Biochemical journal, 389, 1470-8728, , 2005


Open Access

Phospholipase D.
McDermott M, Wakelam MJ, Morris AJ

Phospholipase D catalyses the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of glycerophospholipids to generate phosphatidic acid and a free headgroup. Phospholipase D activities have been detected in simple to complex organisms from viruses and bacteria to yeast, plants, and mammals. Although enzymes with broader selectivity are found in some of the lower organisms, the plant, yeast, and mammalian enzymes are selective for phosphatidylcholine. The two mammalian phospholipase D isoforms are regulated by protein kinases and GTP binding proteins of the ADP-ribosylation and Rho families. Mammalian and yeast phospholipases D are also potently stimulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This review discusses the identification, characterization, structure, and regulation of phospholipase D. Genetic and pharmacological approaches implicate phospholipase D in a diverse range of cellular processes that include receptor signaling, control of intracellular membrane transport, and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Most ideas about phospholipase D function consider that the phosphatidic acid product is an intracellular lipid messenger. Candidate targets for phospholipase-D-generated phosphatidic acid include phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinases and the raf protein kinase. Phosphatidic acid can also be converted to two other lipid mediators, diacylglycerol and lyso phosphatidic acid. Coordinated activation of these phospholipase-D-dependent pathways likely accounts for the pleitropic roles for these enzymes in many aspects of cell regulation.

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Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire, 82, 0829-8211, , 2004


Activation of Syk in neutrophils by antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies occurs via Fcgamma receptors and CD18.
Hewins P, Williams JM, Wakelam MJ, Savage CO

Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) activate TNF-alpha-primed neutrophils to undergo a respiratory burst. The intracellular signals that mediate activation have not been studied extensively but could increase the understanding of the pathogenesis small vessel vasculitis. It was demonstrated that ANCA-IgG induced phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase Syk in TNF-alpha-primed neutrophils from healthy donors. Syk was not phosphorylated in response to ANCA F(ab')(2). Furthermore, Syk phosphorylation was attenuated by blockade of both low-affinity Fcgamma receptors and CD18. Similarly, low-affinity Fcgamma receptor blockade reduced ANCA-induced superoxide production. In patient-derived neutrophils, the high-affinity Fcgamma receptor FcgammaRI was also demonstrated to be involved in ANCA-induced superoxide production. However, Syk phosphorylation was not attenuated by blockade of the FcgammaRI, present on neutrophils from vasculitis patients. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor 4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine inhibited the ANCA-induced respiratory burst and Syk phosphorylation, suggesting that Src kinases lie upstream of Syk activation but downstream of ANCA engagement of Fcgamma receptors. Piceatannol, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, also inhibited ANCA-induced Syk phosphorylation and the ANCA-stimulated respiratory burst, supporting the proposed functional role for Syk in ANCA signaling. ANCA-induced phosphorylation of Cbl and intracellular calcium transients, potential downstream mediators of Syk activation, were also blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. While it has previously been shown that pertussis toxin diminishes the ANCA-induced respiratory burst, indicating heterotrimeric G protein involvement, Syk phosphorylation and calcium transients were unaffected by pertussis toxin. Collectively, these data show that Syk phosphorylation is induced during ANCA-triggered neutrophil activation.

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Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN, 15, 1046-6673, , 2004


Open Access

Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase- and ERK MAPK-regulated protein synthesis reveals the pro-apoptotic properties of CD40 ligation in carcinoma cells.
Davies CC, Mason J, Wakelam MJ, Young LS, Eliopoulos AG

CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is frequently expressed in carcinomas where its stimulation results in induction of apoptosis when de novo protein synthesis is inhibited. The requirement of protein synthesis inhibition for efficient killing suggests that CD40 transduces potent survival signals capable of suppressing its pro-apoptotic effects. We have found that inhibition of CD40 signaling on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK MAPK but not on the p38 MAPK axis disrupts this balance and sensitizes carcinoma cells to CD40-mediated cell death. The CD40-mediated PI3K and ERK activities were found to converge on the regulation of protein synthesis in carcinoma cells via a pathway involving the activation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90Rsk) and p70S6 kinases, upstream of the translation elongation factor eEF2. In addition, CD40 ligation was found to mediate a PI3K- and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and its subsequent dissociation from the mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E as well as an ERK-dependent phosphorylation of eIF4E, thus promoting translation initiation. Concomitantly, the antiapoptotic protein cFLIP was found to be induced in CD40 ligand-stimulated carcinoma cells in a PI3K-, ERK-, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner and down-regulation of cFLIPS expression sensitized to CD40-mediated carcinoma cell death. These data underline the significance of the PI3K and ERK pathways in controlling the balance between CD40-mediated survival and death signals through the regulation of the protein synthesis machinery. Pharmacological agents that target this machinery or its upstream kinases could, therefore, be exploited for CD40-based tumor therapy.

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The Journal of biological chemistry, 279, 0021-9258, , 2004


Open Access

Breast cancer cell-derived EMMPRIN stimulates fibroblast MMP2 release through a phospholipase A(2) and 5-lipoxygenase catalyzed pathway.
PM Taylor, RJ Woodfield, MN Hodgkin, TR Pettitt, A Martin, DJ Kerr, MJ Wakelam

Metalloproteinases (MMP) produced by both cancer and normal stromal fibroblast cells play a critical role in the metastatic spread of tumours, however little is known of the regulation of their release. In this report we demonstrate that breast cancer cells in culture release apparently full length soluble EMMPRIN that promotes the release of pro-MMP2 from fibroblasts. The generation of MMP2 is mediated by activation of phospholipase A(2) and 5-lipoxygenase. These results suggest that the production of soluble EMMPRIN, phospholipase A(2) and 5-lipoxygenase activities are sites for potential therapeutic intervention.

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Oncogene, 21, 37, , 2002

DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1205702

Antigen-stimulated activation of phospholipase D1b by Rac1, ARF6, and PKCalpha in RBL-2H3 cells.
DJ Powner, MN Hodgkin, MJ Wakelam

Phospholipase D (PLD) activity can be detected in response to many agonists in most cell types; however, the pathway from receptor occupation to enzyme activation remains unclear. In vitro PLD1b activity is phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate dependent via an N-terminal PH domain and is stimulated by Rho, ARF, and PKC family proteins, combinations of which cooperatively increase this activity. Here we provide the first evidence for the in vivo regulation of PLD1b at the molecular level. Antigen stimulation of RBL-2H3 cells induces the colocalization of PLD1b with Rac1, ARF6, and PKCalpha at the plasma membrane in actin-rich structures, simultaneously with cooperatively increasing PLD activity. Activation is both specific and direct because dominant negative mutants of Rac1 and ARF6 inhibit stimulated PLD activity, and surface plasmon resonance reveals that the regulatory proteins bind directly and independently to PLD1b. This also indicates that PLD1b can concurrently interact with a member from each regulator family. Our results show that in contrast to PLD1b's translocation to the plasma membrane, PLD activation is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent. Therefore, because inactive, dominant negative GTPases do not activate PLD1b, we propose that activation results from phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of Rac1, ARF6, and PKCalpha.

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Molecular biology of the cell, 13, 4, , 2002

DOI: 10.1091/mbc.01-05-0235