of naïve CD8+
T cells to effector CTLs is controlled by the activation of signalling pathways
that initiate metabolic, transcriptional and translational programs that both reconfigure the protein composition of the cells and dramatically increase their biosynthetic capability and ability to increase their size and mass.
Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of effector T cells are powerful tools to quantify the control of proteins and phosphorylation networks in CTLs (Ross et al., 2016; Rollings et al., 2018). We have observed that the signalling
pathways that control CTL function are a complex network that integrate many aspects of T cell biology (Ross et al., 2016). In addition, we have quantified that CTLs store many millions of the cytolytic granzyme molecules that they use to kill target cells (Rollings et al., 2018). Moreover, after encountering a diseased cell, CTLs activate signalling cascades and gene expression
programs that allow the rapid synthesis of hundreds-of-thousands more molecules of effector cytokines. Consequently, maintaining balanced signalling responses, differentiation and biosynthetic processes are key to maintaining the ability of CTLs to destroy diseased cells, without damaging healthy tissue.