Life Sciences Research for Lifelong Health

Publications klaus-okkenhaug

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The p110delta isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase controls clonal expansion and differentiation of Th cells.
Okkenhaug K, Patton DT, Bilancio A, Garçon F, Rowan WC, Vanhaesebroeck B

The role of PI3K in T cell activation and costimulation has been controversial. We previously reported that a kinase-inactivating mutation (D910A) in the p110delta isoform of PI3K results in normal T cell development, but impaired TCR-stimulated cell proliferation in vitro. This proliferative defect can be overcome by providing CD28 costimulation, which raises the question as to whether p110delta activity plays a role in T cell activation in vivo, which occurs primarily in the context of costimulation. In this study, we show that the PI3K signaling pathway in CD28-costimulated p110delta D910A/D910A T cells is impaired, but that ERK phosphorylation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation are unaffected. Under in vitro conditions of physiological Ag presentation and costimulation, p110delta D910A/D910A T cells showed normal survival, but underwent fewer divisions. Differentiation along the Th1 and Th2 lineages was impaired in p110delta D910A/D910A T cells and could not be rescued by exogenous cytokines in vitro. Adoptive transfer and immunization experiments in mice revealed that clonal expansion and differentiation in response to Ag and physiological costimulation were also compromised. Thus, p110delta contributes significantly to Th cell expansion and differentiation in vitro and in vivo, also in the context of CD28 costimulation.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 177, 0022-1767, 5122-8, 2006

PMID: 17015696

Open Access

Critical role for the p110alpha phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase in growth and metabolic regulation.
Foukas LC, Claret M, Pearce W, Okkenhaug K, Meek S, Peskett E, Sancho S, Smith AJ, Withers DJ, Vanhaesebroeck B

The eight catalytic subunits of the mammalian phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) family form the backbone of an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway; however, the roles of most PI(3)K isoforms in organismal physiology and disease are unknown. To delineate the role of p110alpha, a ubiquitously expressed PI(3)K involved in tyrosine kinase and Ras signalling, here we generated mice carrying a knockin mutation (D933A) that abrogates p110alpha kinase activity. Homozygosity for this kinase-dead p110alpha led to embryonic lethality. Mice heterozygous for this mutation were viable and fertile, but displayed severely blunted signalling via insulin-receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, key mediators of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin action. Defective responsiveness to these hormones led to reduced somatic growth, hyperinsulinaemia, glucose intolerance, hyperphagia and increased adiposity in mice heterozygous for the D933A mutation. This signalling function of p110alpha derives from its highly selective recruitment and activation to IRS signalling complexes compared to p110beta, the other broadly expressed PI(3)K isoform, which did not contribute to IRS-associated PI(3)K activity. p110alpha was the principal IRS-associated PI(3)K in cancer cell lines. These findings demonstrate a critical role for p110alpha in growth factor and metabolic signalling and also suggest an explanation for selective mutation or overexpression of p110alpha in a variety of cancers.

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Nature, 441, 1476-4687, 366-70, 2006

PMID: 16625210

P-Rex1 regulates neutrophil function.
Welch HC, Condliffe AM, Milne LJ, Ferguson GJ, Hill K, Webb LM, Okkenhaug K, Coadwell WJ, Andrews SR, Thelen M, Jones GE, Hawkins PT, Stephens LR

Rac GTPases regulate cytoskeletal structure, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rac2-deficient neutrophils cannot chemotax, produce ROS, or degranulate upon G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Deficiency in PI3Kgamma, an upstream regulator of Rac, causes a similar phenotype. P-Rex1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac, is believed to link GPCRs and PI3Kgamma to Rac-dependent neutrophil responses. We have investigated the functional importance of P-Rex1 by generating a P-Rex1(-/-) mouse. P-Rex1(-/-) mice are viable and healthy, with apparently normal leukocyte development, but with mild neutrophilia. In neutrophils from P-Rex1(-/-) mice, GPCR-dependent Rac2 activation is impaired, whereas Rac1 activation is less compromised. GPCR-dependent ROS formation is absent in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed P-Rex1(-/-) neutrophils, but less affected in unprimed or TNFalpha-primed cells. Recruitment of P-Rex1(-/-) neutrophils to inflammatory sites is impaired. Surprisingly, chemotaxis of isolated neutrophils is only slightly reduced, with a mild defect in cell speed, but normal polarization and directionality. Secretion of azurophil granules is unaffected. In conclusion, P-Rex1 is an important regulator of neutrophil function by mediating a subset of Rac-dependent neutrophil responses. However, P-Rex1 is not an essential regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation.

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Current biology : CB, 15, 0960-9822, 1867-73, 2005

PMID: 16243035

Open Access

Key role of the p110delta isoform of PI3K in B-cell antigen and IL-4 receptor signaling: comparative analysis of genetic and pharmacologic interference with p110delta function in B cells.
A Bilancio, K Okkenhaug, M Camps, JL Emery, T Ruckle, C Rommel, B Vanhaesebroeck

Mouse gene-targeting studies have documented a central role of the p110delta isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in B-cell development and function. A defect in B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is key to this B-cell phenotype. Here we further characterize this signaling defect and report that a p110delta-selective small molecule inhibitor mirrors the effect of genetic inactivation of p110delta in BCR signaling. p110delta activity is indispensable for BCR-induced DNA synthesis and phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), forkhead transcription factor/forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), and p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K), with modest effects on the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha/beta (GSK3alpha/beta) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk). The PI3K-dependent component of intracellular calcium mobilization also completely relies on p110delta catalytic activity. Resting B cells with inactive p110delta fail to enter the cell cycle, correlating with an incapacity to up-regulate the expression of cyclins D2, A, and E, and to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). p110delta is also critical for interleukin 4 (IL-4)-induced phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and FOXO3a, and protection from apoptosis. Taken together, these data show that defects observed in p110delta mutant mice are not merely a consequence of altered B-cell differentiation, and emphasize the potential utility of p110delta as a drug target in autoimmune diseases in which B cells play a crucial role.

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Blood, 107, 2, 642-50, 2006

PMID: 16179367
DOI: 10.1182/blood-2005-07-3041

Open Access

Role of the p110delta PI 3-kinase in integrin and ITAM receptor signalling in platelets.
Senis YA, Atkinson BT, Pearce AC, Wonerow P, Auger JM, Okkenhaug K, Pearce W, Vigorito E, Vanhaesebroeck B, Turner M, Watson SP

We have investigated the function of the p110delta catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) in platelets using p110delta knock-out (p110delta(-/-)) mice and p110delta knock-in (p110delta(D910A/D910A)) mice, which express a catalytically inactive form of the enzyme. Aggregation to threshold concentrations of the GPVI-specific agonist, CRP, was partially reduced in p110delta(-/-) and p110delta(D910A/D910A) platelets. This inhibition was overcome by higher concentrations of CRP. The degree of inhibition was considerably weaker than that induced by LY294002 and wortmannin, which inhibit all isoforms of PI 3-kinase. p110delta(-/-) platelets showed decreased spreading on fibrinogen- or von Willebrand factor (VWF)-coated surfaces under static conditions, whereas they spread normally on collagen. LY294002 had a more pronounced inhibitory effect on spreading on all three surfaces. Adhesion and aggregate formation of p110delta(-/-) platelets to collagen or fibrinogen/VWF at intermediate/high rates of shear were normal. This study demonstrates a minor role for the p110delta catalytic subunit in mediating platelet activation by the collagen receptor GPVI and integrin alphaIIbeta3. The more pronounced inhibitory effect of LY294002 and wortmannin indicates that other isoforms of PI 3-kinase play a more significant role in signalling by the two platelet glycoprotein receptors.

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Platelets, 16, 0953-7104, 191-202, 0

PMID: 16011964

Open Access

Sequential activation of class IB and class IA PI3K is important for the primed respiratory burst of human but not murine neutrophils.
AM Condliffe, K Davidson, KE Anderson, CD Ellson, T Crabbe, K Okkenhaug, B Vanhaesebroeck, M Turner, L Webb, MP Wymann, E Hirsch, T Ruckle, M Camps, C Rommel, SP Jackson, ER Chilvers, LR Stephens, PT Hawkins

It is well established that preexposure of human neutrophils to proinflammatory cytokines markedly augments the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to subsequent stimuli. This priming event is thought to be critical for localizing ROS to the vicinity of the inflammation, maximizing their role in the resolution of the inflammation, and minimizing the damage to surrounding tissue. We have used a new generation of isoform-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors to show that ROS production under these circumstances is regulated by temporal control of class I PI3K activity. Stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-primed human neutrophils with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) results in biphasic activation of PI3K; the first phase is largely dependent on PI3Kgamma, and the second phase is largely dependent on PI3Kdelta. The second phase of PI3K activation requires the first phase; it is this second phase that is augmented by TNF-alpha priming and that regulates parallel activation of ROS production. Surprisingly, although TNF-alpha-primed mouse bone marrow-derived neutrophils exhibit superficially similar patterns of PI3K activation and ROS production in response to fMLP, these responses are substantially lower and largely dependent on PI3Kgamma alone. These results start to define which PI3K isoforms are responsible for modulating neutrophil responsiveness to infection and inflammation.

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Blood, 106, 4, 1432-40, 2005

PMID: 15878979
DOI: 10.1182/blood-2005-03-0944

Open Access

CD28 regulates the translation of Bcl-xL via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.
Wu LX, La Rose J, Chen L, Neale C, Mak T, Okkenhaug K, Wange R, Rottapel R

In concert with the TCR, CD28 promotes T cell survival by regulating the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-x(L). The mechanism by which CD28 mediates the induction of Bcl-x(L) remains unknown. We show that although signaling through the TCR is sufficient to stimulate transcription of Bcl-x(L) mRNA, CD28, by activating PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin, provides a critical signal that regulates the translation of Bcl-x(L) transcripts. We observe that CD28 induced 4E-binding protein-1 phosphorylation, an inhibitor of the translational machinery, and that CD28 costimulation directly augmented the translation of a Bcl-x(L) 5'-untranslated region reporter construct. Lastly, costimulation by CD28 shifted the distribution of Bcl-x(L) mRNA transcripts from the pretranslation complex to the translationally active polyribosomes. These results demonstrate that CD28 relieves the translational inhibition of Bcl-x(L) in a PI3K/mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent manner.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 174, 0022-1767, 180-94, 2005

PMID: 15611240

Open Access

Essential role for the p110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the allergic response.
Ali K, Bilancio A, Thomas M, Pearce W, Gilfillan AM, Tkaczyk C, Kuehn N, Gray A, Giddings J, Peskett E, Fox R, Bruce I, Walker C, Sawyer C, Okkenhaug K, Finan P, Vanhaesebroeck B

Inflammatory substances released by mast cells induce and maintain the allergic response. Mast cell differentiation and activation are regulated, respectively, by stem cell factor (SCF; also known as Kit ligand) and by allergen in complex with allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Activated SCF receptors and high-affinity receptors for IgE (FcvarepsilonRI) engage phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI(3)Ks) to generate intracellular lipid second messenger signals. Here, we report that genetic or pharmacological inactivation of the p110delta isoform of PI(3)K in mast cells leads to defective SCF-mediated in vitro proliferation, adhesion and migration, and to impaired allergen-IgE-induced degranulation and cytokine release. Inactivation of p110delta protects mice against anaphylactic allergic responses. These results identify p110delta as a new target for therapeutic intervention in allergy and mast-cell-related pathologies.

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Nature, 431, 1476-4687, 1007-11, 2004

PMID: 15496927

Open Access

PI3K in lymphocyte development, differentiation and activation.
K Okkenhaug, B Vanhaesebroeck

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate numerous biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration and metabolism. In the immune system, impaired PI3K signalling leads to immunodeficiency, whereas unrestrained PI3K signalling contributes to autoimmunity and leukaemia. New insights into the role of PI3Ks in lymphocyte biology have been derived from gene-targeting studies, which have identified the PI3K subunits that are involved in B-cell and T-cell signalling. In particular, the catalytic subunit p110delta seems to be adapted to transmit antigen-receptor signalling in B and T cells. Additional recent work has provided new insights into the molecular interactions that lead to PI3K activation and the signalling pathways that are regulated by PI3K.

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Nature reviews. Immunology, 3, 4, 317-30, 2003

PMID: 12669022
DOI: 10.1038/nri1056