Life Sciences Research for Lifelong Health

Publications michael-wakelam

Title / Authors / Details Open Access Download

Autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor signalling regulates hepatitis C virus replication.
Farquhar MJ, Humphreys IS, Rudge SA, Wilson GK, Bhattacharya B, Ciaccia M, Hu K, Zhang Q, Mailly L, Reynolds GM, Aschcroft M, Balfe P, Baumert TF, Roessler S, Wakelam MJ, McKeating JA

Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem with an estimated 170 million HCV infected individuals at risk of progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Autotaxin (ATX) is a phospholipase with diverse roles in physiological and pathological processes including inflammation and oncogenesis. Clinical studies have reported increased ATX expression in chronic hepatitis C, however, the pathways regulating ATX and its role in the viral life cycle are not well understood.

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Journal of hepatology, , 1600-0641, , 2017

PMID: 28126468

Phospholipase D activity couples plasma membrane endocytosis with retromer dependent recycling.
Thakur R, Panda A, Coessens E, Raj N, Yadav S, Balakrishnan S, Zhang Q, Georgiev P, Basak B, Pasricha R, Wakelam MJ, Ktistakis NT, Padinjat R

During illumination, the light sensitive plasma membrane (rhabdomere) of Drosophila photoreceptors undergoes turnover with consequent changes in size and composition. However the mechanism by which illumination is coupled to rhabdomere turnover remains unclear. We find that photoreceptors contain a light-dependent phospholipase D (PLD) activity. During illumination, loss of PLD resulted in an enhanced reduction in rhabdomere size, accumulation of Rab7 positive, rhodopsin1-containing vesicles (RLVs) in the cell body and reduced rhodopsin protein. These phenotypes were associated with reduced levels of phosphatidic acid, the product of PLD activity and were rescued by reconstitution with catalytically active PLD. In wild type photoreceptors, during illumination, enhanced PLD activity was sufficient to clear RLVs from the cell body by a process dependent on Arf1-GTP levels and retromer complex function. Thus, during illumination, PLD activity couples endocytosis of RLVs with their recycling to the plasma membrane thus maintaining plasma membrane size and composition.

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eLife, 5, 2050-084X, , 2016

PMID: 27848911

Open Access

Insulin resistance uncoupled from dyslipidemia due to C-terminal PIK3R1 mutations.
Huang-Doran I, Tomlinson P, Payne F, Gast A, Sleigh A, Bottomley W, Harris J, Daly A, Rocha N, Rudge S, Clark J, Kwok A, Romeo S, McCann E, Müksch B, Dattani M, Zucchini S, Wakelam M, Foukas LC, Savage DB, Murphy R, O'Rahilly S, Barroso I, Semple RK

Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis. In 3 of these 4, plasma adiponectin was preserved, as in insulin receptor dysfunction. The fourth patient and her healthy mother had low plasma adiponectin associated with a potentially novel mutation, p.Asp231Ala, in adiponectin itself. Cells studied from one patient with the p.Tyr657X PIK3R1 mutation expressed abundant truncated PIK3R1 products and showed severely reduced insulin-stimulated association of mutant but not WT p85α with IRS1, but normal downstream signaling. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, mutant p85α overexpression attenuated insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and adipocyte differentiation. Thus, PIK3R1 C-terminal mutations impair insulin signaling only in some cellular contexts and produce a subphenotype of insulin resistance resembling INSR dysfunction but unlike AKT2 dysfunction, implicating PI3K in the pathogenesis of key components of the metabolic syndrome.

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JCI insight, 1, , e88766, 2016

PMID: 27766312

Open Access

The Phospholipase D2 Knock Out Mouse Has Ectopic Purkinje Cells and Suffers from Early Adult-Onset Anosmia.
Vermeren MM, Zhang Q, Smethurst E, Segonds-Pichon A, Schrewe H, Wakelam MJ

Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid messenger molecule involved in a number of cellular events including, through its membrane curvature properties, endocytosis. The PLD2 knock out (PLD2KO) mouse has been previously reported to be protected from insult in a model of Alzheimer's disease. We have further analysed a PLD2KO mouse using mass spectrophotometry of its lipids and found significant differences in PA species throughout its brain. We have examined the expression pattern of PLD2 which allowed us to define which region of the brain to analyse for defect, notably PLD2 was not detected in glial-rich regions. The expression pattern lead us to specifically examine the mitral cells of olfactory bulbs, the Cornus Amonis (CA) regions of the hippocampus and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We find that the change to longer PA species correlates with subtle architectural defect in the cerebellum, exemplified by ectopic Purkinje cells and an adult-onset deficit of olfaction. These observations draw parallels to defects in the reelin heterozygote as well as the effect of high fat diet on olfaction.

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PloS one, 11, 1932-6203, e0162814, 0

PMID: 27658289

Open Access

Exosomes bind autotaxin and act as a physiological delivery mechanism to stimulate LPA receptor signalling in cells.
Jethwa SA, Leah EJ, Zhang Q, Bright NA, Oxley D, Bootman MD, Rudge SA, Wakelam MJ

Autotaxin (ATX) the lysophospholipase responsible for generating the lipid receptor agonist lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a secreted enzyme. Here we show that once secreted it can bind to the surface of cell secreted exosomes. Exosome-bound ATX is catalytically active and carries generated LPA. Once bound to a cell, through specific integrin interaction, ATX releases the LPA to activate cell surface G-protein coupled LPA receptors; inhibition of signaling by the receptor antagonist Ki1642 suggests these are either LPAR1 or LPAR3. The binding stimulates downstream signaling including AKT and MAPK phosphorylation, the release of intracellular stored calcium and cell migration. We propose that exosomal binding of LPA-loaded ATX provides a means of efficiently delivering the lipid agonist to cell surface receptors to promote signalling. We further propose that this is a means whereby autotaxin-LPA signaling operates physiologically.

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Journal of cell science, , 1477-9137, , 2016

PMID: 27557622

C13orf31 (FAMIN) is a central regulator of immunometabolic function.
Cader MZ, Boroviak K, Zhang Q, Assadi G, Kempster SL, Sewell GW, Saveljeva S, Ashcroft JW, Clare S, Mukhopadhyay S, Brown KP, Tschurtschenthaler M, Raine T, Doe B, Chilvers ER, Griffin JL, Kaneider NC, Floto RA, D'Amato M, Bradley A, Wakelam MJ, Dougan G, Kaser A

Single-nucleotide variations in C13orf31 (LACC1) that encode p.C284R and p.I254V in a protein of unknown function (called 'FAMIN' here) are associated with increased risk for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, leprosy and Crohn's disease. Here we set out to identify the biological mechanism affected by these coding variations. FAMIN formed a complex with fatty acid synthase (FASN) on peroxisomes and promoted flux through de novo lipogenesis to concomitantly drive high levels of fatty-acid oxidation (FAO) and glycolysis and, consequently, ATP regeneration. FAMIN-dependent FAO controlled inflammasome activation, mitochondrial and NADPH-oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the bactericidal activity of macrophages. As p.I254V and p.C284R resulted in diminished function and loss of function, respectively, FAMIN determined resilience to endotoxin shock. Thus, we have identified a central regulator of the metabolic function and bioenergetic state of macrophages that is under evolutionary selection and determines the risk of inflammatory and infectious disease.

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Nature immunology, , 1529-2916, , 2016

PMID: 27478939

Inhibition of fatty acid desaturation is detrimental to cancer cell survival in metabolically compromised environments.
Peck B, Schug ZT, Zhang Q, Dankworth B, Jones DT, Smethurst E, Patel R, Mason S, Jiang M, Saunders R, Howell M, Mitter R, Spencer-Dene B, Stamp G, McGarry L, James D, Shanks E, Aboagye EO, Critchlow SE, Leung HY, Harris AL, Wakelam MJ, Gottlieb E, Schulze A

Enhanced macromolecule biosynthesis is integral to growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Lipid biosynthesis has been predicted to be an essential process in cancer cells. However, it is unclear which enzymes within this pathway offer the best selectivity for cancer cells and could be suitable therapeutic targets.

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Cancer & metabolism, 4, 2049-3002, 6, 2016

PMID: 27042297

Open Access

Purification, characterization and crystallization of the F-ATPase from Paracoccus denitrificans.
Morales-Rios E, Watt IN, Zhang Q, Ding S, Fearnley IM, Montgomery MG, Wakelam MJ, Walker JE

The structures of F-ATPases have been determined predominantly with mitochondrial enzymes, but hitherto no F-ATPase has been crystallized intact. A high-resolution model of the bovine enzyme built up from separate sub-structures determined by X-ray crystallography contains about 85% of the entire complex, but it lacks a crucial region that provides a transmembrane proton pathway involved in the generation of the rotary mechanism that drives the synthesis of ATP. Here the isolation, characterization and crystallization of an integral F-ATPase complex from the α-proteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans are described. Unlike many eubacterial F-ATPases, which can both synthesize and hydrolyse ATP, the P. denitrificans enzyme can only carry out the synthetic reaction. The mechanism of inhibition of its ATP hydrolytic activity involves a ζ inhibitor protein, which binds to the catalytic F1-domain of the enzyme. The complex that has been crystallized, and the crystals themselves, contain the nine core proteins of the complete F-ATPase complex plus the ζ inhibitor protein. The formation of crystals depends upon the presence of bound bacterial cardiolipin and phospholipid molecules; when they were removed, the complex failed to crystallize. The experiments open the way to an atomic structure of an F-ATPase complex.

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Open biology, 5, 2046-2441, , 2015

PMID: 26423580

Cell cycle progression is an essential regulatory component of phospholipid metabolism and membrane homeostasis.
Sanchez-Alvarez M, Zhang Q, Finger F, Wakelam MJ, Bakal C

We show that phospholipid anabolism does not occur uniformly during the metazoan cell cycle. Transition to S-phase is required for optimal mobilization of lipid precursors, synthesis of specific phospholipid species and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Average changes observed in whole-cell phospholipid composition, and total ER lipid content, upon stimulation of cell growth can be explained by the cell cycle distribution of the population. TORC1 promotes phospholipid anabolism by slowing S/G2 progression. The cell cycle stage-specific nature of lipid biogenesis is dependent on p53. We propose that coupling lipid metabolism to cell cycle progression is a means by which cells have evolved to coordinate proliferation with cell and organelle growth.

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Open biology, 5, 2046-2441, , 2015

PMID: 26333836

Open Access

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related overgrowth: cellular phenotype and future therapeutic options.
Parker VE, Knox RG, Zhang Q, Wakelam MJ, Semple RK

Somatic activating mutations in PIK3CA, which encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) are frequently found in cancers and have been identified in a spectrum of mosaic overgrowth disorders ranging from isolated digit enlargement to more extensive overgrowth of the body, brain, or vasculature. We aimed to study affected dermal fibroblasts with a view to inform therapeutic studies, and to observe cancer-associated mutations in isolation.

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Lancet (London, England), 385 Suppl 1, 1474-547X, S77, 2015

PMID: 26312899

Phosphatidylinositolphosphate Phosphatase Activities and Cancer.
Rudge SA, Wakelam MJ

Signalling through the PI3kinases pathways mediates the actions of a plethora of hormones, growth factors, cytokines and neurotransmitters upon their target cells following receptor occupation. Over-activation of these pathways has been implicated in a number of pathologies in particular a range of malignancies. The tight regulation of signalling pathways necessitates the involvement of both stimulatory a terminating enzymes, inappropriate activation of a pathway can thus result from activation or inhibition of the two signalling arms. A range of enzymes have been identified that catalyse the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides, this review outlines these and highlights those that have been implicated in promoting malignancy.

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Journal of lipid research, , 0022-2275, , 2015

PMID: 26302980

Speed and sensitivity of phototransduction in Drosophila depend on degree of saturation of membrane phospholipids.
Randall AS, Liu CH, Chu B, Zhang Q, Dongre SA, Juusola M, Franze K, Wakelam MJ, Hardie RC

Drosophila phototransduction is mediated via a G-protein-coupled PLC cascade. Recent evidence, including the demonstration that light evokes rapid contractions of the photoreceptors, suggested that the light-sensitive channels (TRP and TRPL) may be mechanically gated, together with protons released by PLC-mediated PIP2 hydrolysis. If mechanical gating is involved we predicted that the response to light should be influenced by altering the physical properties of the membrane. To achieve this, we used diet to manipulate the degree of saturation of membrane phospholipids. In flies reared on a yeast diet, lacking polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), mass spectrometry showed that the proportion of polyunsaturated phospholipids was sevenfold reduced (from 38 to ∼5%) but rescued by adding a single species of PUFA (linolenic or linoleic acid) to the diet. Photoreceptors from yeast-reared flies showed a 2- to 3-fold increase in latency and time to peak of the light response, without affecting quantum bump waveform. In the absence of Ca(2+) influx or in trp mutants expressing only TRPL channels, sensitivity to light was reduced up to ∼10-fold by the yeast diet, and essentially abolished in hypomorphic G-protein mutants (Gαq). PLC activity appeared little affected by the yeast diet; however, light-induced contractions measured by atomic force microscopy or the activation of ectopic mechanosensitive gramicidin channels were also slowed ∼2-fold. The results are consistent with mechanosensitive gating and provide a striking example of how dietary fatty acids can profoundly influence sensory performance in a classical G-protein-coupled signaling cascade.

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The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 35, 1529-2401, 2731-46, 2015

PMID: 25673862

Open Access

Acetyl-CoA Synthetase 2 Promotes Acetate Utilization and Maintains Cancer Cell Growth under Metabolic Stress.
Schug ZT, Peck B, Jones DT, Zhang Q, Grosskurth S, Alam IS, Goodwin LM, Smethurst E, Mason S, Blyth K, McGarry L, James D, Shanks E, Kalna G, Saunders RE, Jiang M, Howell M, Lassailly F, Thin MZ, Spencer-Dene B, Stamp G, van den Broek NJ, Mackay G, Bulusu V, Kamphorst JJ, Tardito S, Strachan D, Harris AL, Aboagye EO, Critchlow SE, Wakelam MJ, Schulze A, Gottlieb E

A functional genomics study revealed that the activity of acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) contributes to cancer cell growth under low-oxygen and lipid-depleted conditions. Comparative metabolomics and lipidomics demonstrated that acetate is used as a nutritional source by cancer cells in an ACSS2-dependent manner, and supplied a significant fraction of the carbon within the fatty acid and phospholipid pools. ACSS2 expression is upregulated under metabolically stressed conditions and ACSS2 silencing reduced the growth of tumor xenografts. ACSS2 exhibits copy-number gain in human breast tumors, and ACSS2 expression correlates with disease progression. These results signify a critical role for acetate consumption in the production of lipid biomass within the harsh tumor microenvironment.

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Cancer cell, 27, 1878-3686, 57-71, 2015

PMID: 25584894

Open Access

P-Rex and Vav Rac-GEFs in platelets control leukocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation.
Pan D, Amison RT, Riffo-Vasquez Y, Spina D, Cleary SJ, Wakelam MJ, Page CP, Pitchford SC, Welch HC

The small GTPase Rac is required for neutrophil recruitment during inflammation, but its GEF activators seem dispensable for this process, which led us to investigate the possibility of cooperation between Rac-GEF families. Thioglycollate-induced neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneum was more severely impaired in P-Rex1(-/-) Vav1(-/-) (P1V1) or P-Rex1(-/-) Vav3(-/-) (P1V3) mice than in P-Rex null or Vav null mice, suggesting cooperation between P-Rex and Vav Rac-GEFs in this process. Neutrophil transmigration and airway infiltration were all but lost in P1V1 and P1V3 mice during LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, with altered ICAM1-dependent slow neutrophil rolling and strongly reduced L- and E-selectin dependent adhesion in airway postcapillary venules. Analysis of adhesion molecule expression, neutrophil adhesion, spreading and migration suggested these defects to be only partially neutrophil-intrinsic and not obviously involving vascular endothelial cells. Instead, P1V1 and P1V3 platelets recapitulated the impairment of LPS-induced intravascular neutrophil adhesion and recruitment, revealing P-Rex and Vav expression in platelets to be crucial. Similarly, during ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation, pulmonary recruitment of P1V1 and P1V3 eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes was compromised in a platelet-dependent manner, and airway inflammation essentially abolished, resulting in improved airway responsiveness. Therefore, platelet P-Rex and Vav family Rac-GEFs play important proinflammatory roles in leukocyte recruitment.

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Blood, , 1528-0020, , 2014

PMID: 25538043

Open Access

The proto-oncogene PBF binds p53 and is associated with prognostic features in colorectal cancer.
Read ML, Seed RI, Modasia B, Kwan PP, Sharma N, Smith VE, Watkins RJ, Bansal S, Gagliano T, Stratford AL, Ismail T, Wakelam MJ, Kim DS, Ward ST, Boelaert K, Franklyn JA, Turnell AS, McCabe CJ

The PTTG1-binding factor (PBF) is a transforming gene capable of eliciting tumor formation in xenograft models. However, the precise role of PBF in tumorigenesis and its prognostic value as a cancer biomarker remain largely uncharacterised, particularly in malignancies outside the thyroid. Here, we provide the first evidence that PBF represents a promising prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Examination of a total of 39 patients demonstrated higher PBF expression at both the mRNA (P = 0.009) and protein (P  90%; P 

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Molecular carcinogenesis, , 1098-2744, , 2014

PMID: 25408419

Open Access

Melanoma Cells Break Down LPA to Establish Local Gradients That Drive Chemotactic Dispersal.
Muinonen-Martin AJ, Susanto O, Q Zhang, Smethurst E, Faller WJ, Veltman DM, Kalna G, Lindsay C, Bennett DC, Sansom OJ, Herd R, Jones R, Machesky LM, Wakelam MJ, Knecht DA, Insall RH

The high mortality of melanoma is caused by rapid spread of cancer cells, which occurs unusually early in tumour evolution. Unlike most solid tumours, thickness rather than cytological markers or differentiation is the best guide to metastatic potential. Multiple stimuli that drive melanoma cell migration have been described, but it is not clear which are responsible for invasion, nor if chemotactic gradients exist in real tumours. In a chamber-based assay for melanoma dispersal, we find that cells migrate efficiently away from one another, even in initially homogeneous medium. This dispersal is driven by positive chemotaxis rather than chemorepulsion or contact inhibition. The principal chemoattractant, unexpectedly active across all tumour stages, is the lipid agonist lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acting through the LPA receptor LPAR1. LPA induces chemotaxis of remarkable accuracy, and is both necessary and sufficient for chemotaxis and invasion in 2-D and 3-D assays. Growth factors, often described as tumour attractants, cause negligible chemotaxis themselves, but potentiate chemotaxis to LPA. Cells rapidly break down LPA present at substantial levels in culture medium and normal skin to generate outward-facing gradients. We measure LPA gradients across the margins of melanomas in vivo, confirming the physiological importance of our results. We conclude that LPA chemotaxis provides a strong drive for melanoma cells to invade outwards. Cells create their own gradients by acting as a sink, breaking down locally present LPA, and thus forming a gradient that is low in the tumour and high in the surrounding areas. The key step is not acquisition of sensitivity to the chemoattractant, but rather the tumour growing to break down enough LPA to form a gradient. Thus the stimulus that drives cell dispersal is not the presence of LPA itself, but the self-generated, outward-directed gradient.

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PLoS biology, 12, 1545-7885, e1001966, 2014

PMID: 25313567

Open Access

Fatty Acid Uptake and Lipid Storage Induced by HIF-1α Contribute to Cell Growth and Survival after Hypoxia-Reoxygenation.
Bensaad K, Favaro E, Lewis CA, Peck B, Lord S, Collins JM, Pinnick KE, Wigfield S, Buffa FM, Li JL, Q Zhang, MJ Wakelam, Karpe F, Schulze A, Harris AL

An in vivo model of antiangiogenic therapy allowed us to identify genes upregulated by bevacizumab treatment, including Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 (FABP3) and FABP7, both of which are involved in fatty acid uptake. In vitro, both were induced by hypoxia in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. There was a significant lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in hypoxia that was time and O2 concentration dependent. Knockdown of endogenous expression of FABP3, FABP7, or Adipophilin (an essential LD structural component) significantly impaired LD formation under hypoxia. We showed that LD accumulation is due to FABP3/7-dependent fatty acid uptake while de novo fatty acid synthesis is repressed in hypoxia. We also showed that ATP production occurs via β-oxidation or glycogen degradation in a cell-type-dependent manner in hypoxia-reoxygenation. Finally, inhibition of lipid storage reduced protection against reactive oxygen species toxicity, decreased the survival of cells subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation in-vitro, and strongly impaired tumorigenesis in-vivo.

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Cell reports, 9, 2211-1247, 349-65, 2014

PMID: 25263561

Open Access

Modulation of triglyceride and cholesterol ester synthesis impairs assembly of infectious hepatitis C virus.
Liefhebber JM,Hague CV,Zhang Q,Wakelam MJ,McLauchlan J

In hepatitis C virus infection, replication of the viral genome and virion assembly are linked to cellular metabolic processes. In particular, lipid droplets, which store principally triacylglycerides (TAGs) and cholesterol esters (CEs), have been implicated in production of infectious virus. Here, we examine the effect on productive infection of triacsin C and YIC-C8-434, which inhibit synthesis of TAGs and CEs by targeting long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase, respectively. Our results present high resolution data on the acylglycerol and cholesterol ester species that were affected by the compounds. Moreover, triacsin C, which blocks both triglyceride and cholesterol ester synthesis, cleared most of the lipid droplets in cells. By contrast, YIC-C8-434, which only abrogates production of cholesterol esters, induced an increase in size of droplets. Although both compounds slightly reduced viral RNA synthesis, they significantly impaired assembly of infectious virions in infected cells. In the case of triacsin C, reduced stability of the viral core protein, which forms the virion nucleocapsid and is targeted to the surface of lipid droplets, correlated with lower virion assembly. In addition, the virus particles that were released from cells had reduced specific infectivity. YIC-C8-434 did not alter the association of core with lipid droplets but appeared to decrease production of infectious virus particles, suggesting a block in virion assembly. Thus, the compounds have antiviral properties, indicating that targeting synthesis of lipids stored in lipid droplets might be an option for therapeutic intervention in treating chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

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The Journal of biological chemistry, 289, 1083-351X, 21276-88, 2014

PMID: 24917668

Open Access

Lipid droplet formation in response to oleic acid in Huh-7 cells is mediated by the fatty acid receptor FFAR4.
Rohwedder A,Zhang Q,Rudge SA,Wakelam MJ

It is unclear how changes in lipid droplet size and number are regulated - for example, it is not known whether this involves a signalling pathway or is directed by cellular lipid uptake. Here, we show that oleic acid stimulates lipid droplet formation by activating the long-chain fatty acid receptor FFAR4, which signals through a pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-protein signalling pathway involving phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), AKT (also known as protein kinase B) and phospholipase D (PLD) activities. This initial lipid droplet formation is not dependent upon exogenous lipid, whereas the subsequent more sustained increase in the number of lipid droplets is dependent upon lipid uptake. These two mechanisms of lipid droplet formation point to distinct potential intervention points.

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Journal of cell science, 127, 1477-9137, 3104-15, 2014

PMID: 24876224

Open Access

The uses and limitations of the analysis of cellular phosphoinositides by lipidomic and imaging methodologies.
Wakelam MJ

The advent of mass spectrometric methods has facilitated the determination of multiple molecular species of cellular lipid classes including the polyphosphoinositides, though to date methods to analyse and quantify each of the individual three PtdInsP and three PtdInsP2 species are lacking. The use of imaging methods has allowed intracellular localization of the phosphoinositide classes but this methodology does not determine the acyl structures. The range of molecular species suggests a greater complexity in polyphosphoinositide signaling than yet defined but elucidating this will require further method development to be achieved. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.

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Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1841, 0006-3002, 1102-7, 2014

PMID: 24769341

Open Access

SnapShot: Lipid kinase and phosphatase reaction pathways.
Rudge SA, Wakelam MJ

Cell, 156, 1097-4172, 376-376.e1, 2014

PMID: 24439389

Open Access

SnapShot: lipid kinases and phosphatases.
Rudge SA, Wakelam MJ

Cell, 155, 1097-4172, 1654-1654.e1, 2013

PMID: 24360283

Open Access

Lipidomics in the analysis of malignancy.
Zhang Q, Wakelam MJ

Lipidomic methodologies have developed such that determination in lipid species content of cells and tissues is increasingly achievable. Adoption of these methods is highlighting the physiological importance of individual lipid molecular species rather than changes in an overall lipid class. In this article the use of such methodologies is considered and the potential for understanding the importance of lipid changes in malignancy assessed.

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Advances in biological regulation, 54, 2212-4934, 93-8, 2014

PMID: 24332194

Sterol regulatory element binding protein-dependent regulation of lipid synthesis supports cell survival and tumor growth.
Griffiths B,Lewis CA,Bensaad K,Ros S,Zhang Q,Ferber EC,Konisti S,Peck B,Miess H,East P,Wakelam M,Harris AL,Schulze A

Regulation of lipid metabolism via activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) has emerged as an important function of the Akt/mTORC1 signaling axis. Although the contribution of dysregulated Akt/mTORC1 signaling to cancer has been investigated extensively and altered lipid metabolism is observed in many tumors, the exact role of SREBPs in the control of biosynthetic processes required for Akt-dependent cell growth and their contribution to tumorigenesis remains unclear.

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Cancer & metabolism, 1, 2049-3002, 3, 2013

PMID: 24280005

Open Access

Knockdown of diacylglycerol kinase delta inhibits adipocyte differentiation and alters lipid synthesis.
CE Lowe, Q Zhang, RJ Dennis, EM Aubry, S O'Rahilly, MJ Wakelam, JJ Rochford

OBJECTIVE: Decreased expression of diacylglycerol kinase delta (DGKδ) has been linked to insulin resistance in humans and mice and it is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue. Therefore, its role in adipogenesis was examined. DESIGN AND METHODS: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were generated in which DGKδ expression had been knocked down and the effect of this on adipogenesis was determined. Lipidomic analyses were performed to determine levels of the DGKδ product phosphatidic acid (PA), its substrate diacylglycerol (DAG) and triglyceride (TG). RESULTS: Inhibiting DGKδ expression prevents adipogenesis. DGKδ knockdown in differentiating adipocytes blunted the increase in total levels of PA and DAG but did not affect the early rise in TG levels. DAG or PA species acting as TG precursors were only modestly reduced by DGKδ knockdown which significantly impaired the accumulation of DAG or PA species implicated in intracellular signaling. The DAG activated kinase PKCδ was also stimulated in DGKδ knockdown cells, despite no increase in detectable species of DAG. CONCLUSIONS: DGKδ is a novel regulator of adipogenesis and phosphorylates a quantitatively small pool of signaling DAG important for differentiation and indirectly affects overall levels of signaling DAG and PA species distinct from those acting as precursors for TG synthesis.

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Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), , , , 2013

PMID: 23703849
DOI: 10.1002/oby.20297

Open Access