Life Sciences Research for Lifelong Health

Publications martin-turner

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Maintenance of the marginal-zone B cell compartment specifically requires the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L1.
Newman R, Ahlfors H, Saveliev A, Galloway A, Hodson DJ, Williams R, Besra GS, Cook CN, Cunningham AF, Bell SE, Turner M

RNA-binding proteins of the ZFP36 family are best known for inhibiting the expression of cytokines through binding to AU-rich elements in the 3' untranslated region and promoting mRNA decay. Here we identified an indispensable role for ZFP36L1 as the regulator of a post-transcriptional hub that determined the identity of marginal-zone B cells by promoting their proper localization and survival. ZFP36L1 controlled a gene-expression program related to signaling, cell adhesion and locomotion; it achieved this in part by limiting expression of the transcription factors KLF2 and IRF8, which are known to enforce the follicular B cell phenotype. These mechanisms emphasize the importance of integrating transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes by RNA-binding proteins for maintaining cellular identity among closely related cell types.

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Nature immunology, , 1529-2916, , 2017

PMID: 28394372

Cell cycle RNA regulons coordinating early lymphocyte development.
Galloway A, Turner M

Lymphocytes undergo dynamic changes in gene expression as they develop from progenitor cells lacking antigen receptors, to mature cells that are prepared to mount immune responses. While transcription factors have established roles in lymphocyte development, they act in concert with post-transcriptional and post-translational regulators to determine the proteome. Furthermore, the post-transcriptional regulation of RNA regulons consisting of mRNAs whose protein products act cooperatively allows RNA binding proteins to exert their effects at multiple points in a pathway. Here, we review recent evidence demonstrating the importance of RNA binding proteins that control the cell cycle in lymphocyte development and discuss the implications for tumorigenesis. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

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Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. RNA, , 1757-7012, , 2017

PMID: 28231639

RNA-binding proteins mind the GAPs.
Turner M, Monzón-Casanova E

Nature immunology, 18, 1529-2916, 146-148, 2017

PMID: 28102216

The RNA-Binding Proteins Zfp36l1 and Zfp36l2 Enforce the Thymic β-Selection Checkpoint by Limiting DNA Damage Response Signaling and Cell Cycle Progression.
Vogel KU, Bell LS, Galloway A, Ahlfors H, Turner M

The RNA-binding proteins Zfp36l1 and Zfp36l2 act redundantly to enforce the β-selection checkpoint during thymopoiesis, yet their molecular targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we identify these targets on a genome-wide scale in primary mouse thymocytes and show that Zfp36l1/l2 regulate DNA damage response and cell cycle transcripts to ensure proper β-selection. Double-negative 3 thymocytes lacking Zfp36l1/l2 share a gene expression profile with postselected double-negative 3b cells despite the absence of intracellular TCRβ and reduced IL-7 signaling. Our findings show that in addition to controlling the timing of proliferation at β-selection, posttranscriptional control by Zfp36l1/l2 limits DNA damage responses, which are known to promote thymocyte differentiation. Zfp36l1/l2 therefore act as posttranscriptional safeguards against chromosomal instability and replication stress by integrating pre-TCR and IL-7 signaling with DNA damage and cell cycle control.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), , 1550-6606, , 2016

PMID: 27566829

The RNA-binding protein TTP is a global post-transcriptional regulator of feedback control in inflammation.
Tiedje C, Diaz-Muñoz MD, Trulley P, Ahlfors H, Laaß K, Blackshear PJ, Turner M, Gaestel M

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) facilitate post-transcriptional control of eukaryotic gene expression at multiple levels. The RBP tristetraprolin (TTP/Zfp36) is a signal-induced phosphorylated anti-inflammatory protein guiding unstable mRNAs of pro-inflammatory proteins for degradation and preventing translation. Using iCLIP, we have identified numerous mRNA targets bound by wild-type TTP and by a non-MK2-phosphorylatable TTP mutant (TTP-AA) in 1 h LPS-stimulated macrophages and correlated their interaction with TTP to changes at the level of mRNA abundance and translation in a transcriptome-wide manner. The close similarity of the transcriptomes of TTP-deficient and TTP-expressing macrophages upon short LPS stimulation suggested an effective inactivation of TTP by MK2, whereas retained RNA-binding capacity of TTP-AA to 3'UTRs caused profound changes in the transcriptome and translatome, altered NF-κB-activation and induced cell death. Increased TTP binding to the 3'UTR of feedback inhibitor mRNAs, such as Ier3, Dusp1 or Tnfaip3, in the absence of MK2-dependent TTP neutralization resulted in a strong reduction of their protein synthesis contributing to the deregulation of the NF-κB-signaling pathway. Taken together, our study uncovers a role of TTP as a suppressor of feedback inhibitors of inflammation and highlights the importance of fine-tuned TTP activity-regulation by MK2 in order to control the pro-inflammatory response.

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Nucleic acids research, , 1362-4962, , 2016

PMID: 27220464

Open Access

RNA-binding proteins ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 promote cell quiescence.
Galloway A, Saveliev A, Łukasiak S, Hodson DJ, Bolland D, Balmanno K, Ahlfors H, Monzón-Casanova E, Mannurita SC, Bell LS, Andrews S, Díaz-Muñoz MD, Cook SJ, Corcoran A, Turner M

Progression through the stages of lymphocyte development requires coordination of the cell cycle. Such coordination ensures genomic integrity while cells somatically rearrange their antigen receptor genes [in a process called variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) recombination] and, upon successful rearrangement, expands the pools of progenitor lymphocytes. Here we show that in developing B lymphocytes, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 are critical for maintaining quiescence before precursor B cell receptor (pre-BCR) expression and for reestablishing quiescence after pre-BCR-induced expansion. These RBPs suppress an evolutionarily conserved posttranscriptional regulon consisting of messenger RNAs whose protein products cooperatively promote transition into the S phase of the cell cycle. This mechanism promotes VDJ recombination and effective selection of cells expressing immunoglobulin-μ at the pre-BCR checkpoint.

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Science (New York, N.Y.), 352, 1095-9203, 453-9, 2016

PMID: 27102483

MicroRNA-155 controls affinity-based selection by protecting c-MYC+ B cells from apoptosis.
Nakagawa R, Leyland R, Meyer-Hermann M, Lu D, Turner M, Arbore G, Phan TG, Brink R, Vigorito E

The production of high-affinity antibodies by B cells is essential for pathogen clearance. Antibody affinity for antigen is increased through the affinity maturation in germinal centers (GCs). This is an iterative process in which B cells cycle between proliferation coupled with the acquisition of mutations and antigen-based positive selection, resulting in retention of the highest-affinity B cell clones. The posttranscriptional regulator microRNA-155 (miR-155) is critical for efficient affinity maturation and the maintenance of the GCs; however, the cellular and molecular mechanism by which miR-155 regulates GC responses is not well understood. Here, we utilized a miR-155 reporter mouse strain and showed that miR-155 is coexpressed with the proto-oncogene encoding c-MYC in positively selected B cells. Functionally, miR-155 protected positively selected c-MYC+ B cells from apoptosis, allowing clonal expansion of this population, providing an explanation as to why Mir155 deletion impairs affinity maturation and promotes the premature collapse of GCs. We determined that miR-155 directly inhibits the Jumonji family member JARID2, which enhances B cell apoptosis when overexpressed, and thereby promotes GC B cell survival. Our findings also suggest that there is cooperation between c-MYC and miR-155 during the normal GC response, a cooperation that may explain how c-MYC and miR-155 can collaboratively function as oncogenes.

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The Journal of clinical investigation, , 1558-8238, , 2015

PMID: 26657861

Open Access

GIMAP1 Is Essential for the Survival of Naive and Activated B Cells In Vivo.
Webb LM, Datta P, Bell SE, Kitamura D, Turner M, Butcher GW

An effective immune system depends upon regulation of lymphocyte function and homeostasis. In recent years, members of the GTPases of the immunity associated protein (GIMAP) family were proposed to regulate T cell homeostasis. In contrast, little is known about their function and mode of action in B cells. We used a combination of transgenic mice and in vivo and in vitro techniques to conditionally and electively ablate GIMAP1 in resting and activated peripheral B cells. Our data suggest that GIMAP1 is absolutely essential for the survival of peripheral B cells, irrespective of their activation state. Together with recent data showing increased expression of GIMAP1 in B cell lymphomas, our work points to the possible potential of GIMAP1 as a target for manipulation in a variety of B cell-mediated diseases.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), , 1550-6606, , 2015

PMID: 26621859

Generation of functionally distinct isoforms of PTBP3 by alternative splicing and translation initiation.
Tan LY, Whitfield P, Llorian M, Monzon-Casanova E, Diaz-Munoz MD, Turner M, Smith CW

Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) is a widely expressed RNA binding protein that acts as a regulator of alternative splicing and of cytoplasmic mRNA functions. Vertebrates contain two closely-related paralogs with >75% amino acid sequence identity. Early replacement of PTBP1 by PTBP2 during neuronal differentiation causes a concerted set of splicing changes. By comparison, very little is known about the molecular functions or physiological roles of PTBP3, although its expression and conservation throughout the vertebrates suggest a role in haematopoietic cells. To begin to understand its functions we have characterized the mRNA and protein isoform repertoire of PTBP3. Combinatorial alternative splicing events at the 5' end of the gene allow for the generation of eight mRNA and three major protein isoforms. Individual mRNAs generate up to three protein isoforms via alternative translation initiation by re-initiation and leaky scanning using downstream AUG codons. The N-terminally truncated PTBP3 isoforms lack nuclear localization signals and/or most of the RRM1 domain and vary in their RNA binding properties and nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution, suggesting that PTBP3 may have major post-transcriptional cytoplasmic roles. Our findings set the stage for understanding the non-redundant physiological roles of PTBP3.

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Nucleic acids research, , 1362-4962, , 2015

PMID: 25940628

Open Access

The RNA-binding protein HuR is essential for the B cell antibody response.
Diaz-Muñoz MD, Bell SE, Fairfax K, Monzon-Casanova E, Cunningham AF, Gonzalez-Porta M, Andrews SR, Bunik VI, Zarnack K, Curk T, Heggermont WA, Heymans S, Gibson GE, Kontoyiannis DL, Ule J, Turner M

Post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA by the RNA-binding protein HuR (encoded by Elavl1) is required in B cells for the germinal center reaction and for the production of class-switched antibodies in response to thymus-independent antigens. Transcriptome-wide examination of RNA isoforms and their abundance and translation in HuR-deficient B cells, together with direct measurements of HuR-RNA interactions, revealed that HuR-dependent splicing of mRNA affected hundreds of transcripts, including that encoding dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (Dlst), a subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH) complex. In the absence of HuR, defective mitochondrial metabolism resulted in large amounts of reactive oxygen species and B cell death. Our study shows how post-transcriptional processes control the balance of energy metabolism required for the proliferation and differentiation of B cells.

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Nature immunology, 16, 1529-2916, 415-25, 2015

PMID: 25706746

Open Access

Deletion of AU-Rich Elements within the Bcl2 3'UTR Reduces Protein Expression and B Cell Survival In Vivo.
Díaz-Muñoz MD, Bell SE, Turner M

Post-transcriptional mRNA regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) associated with AU-rich elements (AREs) present in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of specific mRNAs modulates transcript stability and translation in eukaryotic cells. Here we have functionally characterised the importance of the AREs present within the Bcl2 3'UTR in order to maintain Bcl2 expression. Gene targeting deletion of 300 nucleotides of the Bcl2 3'UTR rich in AREs diminishes Bcl2 mRNA stability and protein levels in primary B cells, decreasing cell lifespan. Generation of chimeric mice indicates that Bcl2-ARE∆/∆ B cells have an intrinsic competitive disadvantage compared to wild type cells. Biochemical assays and predictions using a bioinformatics approach show that several RBPs bind to the Bcl2 AREs, including AUF1 and HuR proteins. Altogether, association of RBPs to Bcl2 AREs contributes to Bcl2 protein expression by stabilizing Bcl2 mRNA and promotes B cell maintenance.

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PloS one, 10, 1932-6203, e0116899, 2015

PMID: 25680182

Open Access

PI3K Signaling in B Cell and T Cell Biology.
Okkenhaug K, Turner M, Gold MR

Frontiers in immunology, 5, 1664-3224, 557, 2014

PMID: 25404931

Open Access

Generation and characterisation of mice deficient in the multi-GTPase domain containing protein, GIMAP8.
Webb LM, Pascall JC, Hepburn L, Carter C, Turner M, Butcher GW

GTPases of the immunity-associated protein family (GIMAPs) are predominantly expressed in mature lymphocytes. Studies of rodents deficient in GIMAP1, GIMAP4, or GIMAP5 have demonstrated that these GTPases regulate lymphocyte survival. In contrast to the other family members, GIMAP8 contains three potential GTP-binding domains (G-domains), a highly unusual feature suggesting a novel function for this protein. To examine a role for GIMAP8 in lymphocyte biology we examined GIMAP8 expression during lymphocyte development. We also generated a mouse deficient in GIMAP8 and examined lymphocyte development and function.

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PloS one, 9, 1932-6203, e110294, 2014

PMID: 25329815

Open Access

The miR-155-PU.1 axis acts on Pax5 to enable efficient terminal B cell differentiation.
Lu D, Nakagawa R, Lazzaro S, Staudacher P, Abreu-Goodger C, Henley T, Boiani S, Leyland R, Galloway A, Andrews S, Butcher G, Nutt SL, Turner M, Vigorito E

A single microRNA (miRNA) can regulate the expression of many genes, though the level of repression imparted on any given target is generally low. How then is the selective pressure for a single miRNA/target interaction maintained across long evolutionary distances? We addressed this problem by disrupting in vivo the interaction between miR-155 and PU.1 in mice. Remarkably, this interaction proved to be key to promoting optimal T cell-dependent B cell responses, a previously unrecognized role for PU.1. Mechanistically, miR-155 inhibits PU.1 expression, leading to Pax5 down-regulation and the initiation of the plasma cell differentiation pathway. Additional PU.1 targets include a network of genes whose products are involved in adhesion, with direct links to B-T cell interactions. We conclude that the evolutionary adaptive selection of the miR-155-PU.1 interaction is exercised through the effectiveness of terminal B cell differentiation.

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The Journal of experimental medicine, 211, 1540-9538, 2183-98, 2014

PMID: 25288398

Open Access

Inactivation of PI(3)K p110δ breaks regulatory T-cell-mediated immune tolerance to cancer.
K Ali, DR Soond, R Piñeiro, T Hagemann, W Pearce, EL Lim, H Bouabe, CL Scudamore, T Hancox, H Maecker, L Friedman, M Turner, K Okkenhaug, B Vanhaesebroeck

Inhibitors against the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) have shown remarkable therapeutic efficacy in some human leukaemias. As p110δ is primarily expressed in leukocytes, drugs against p110δ have not been considered for the treatment of solid tumours. Here we report that p110δ inactivation in mice protects against a broad range of cancers, including non-haematological solid tumours. We demonstrate that p110δ inactivation in regulatory T cells unleashes CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and induces tumour regression. Thus, p110δ inhibitors can break tumour-induced immune tolerance and should be considered for wider use in oncology.

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Nature, 510, , 407-411, 2014

PMID: 24919154
DOI: 10.1038/nature13444

Open Access

Noncoding RNA and its associated proteins as regulatory elements of the immune system.
M Turner, A Galloway, E Vigorito

The rapid changes in gene expression that accompany developmental transitions, stress responses and proliferation are controlled by signal-mediated coordination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. In recent years, understanding of the mechanics of these processes and the contexts in which they are employed during hematopoiesis and immune challenge has increased. An important aspect of this progress is recognition of the importance of RNA-binding proteins and noncoding RNAs. These have roles in the development and function of the immune system and in pathogen life cycles, and they represent an important aspect of intracellular immunity.

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Nature immunology, 15, 6, 484-91, 2014

PMID: 24840979
DOI: 10.1038/ni.2887

The microRNA miR-155 controls CD8(+) T cell responses by regulating interferon signaling.
DT Gracias, E Stelekati, JL Hope, AC Boesteanu, TA Doering, J Norton, YM Mueller, JA Fraietta, EJ Wherry, M Turner, PD Katsikis

We found upregulation of expression of the microRNA miR-155 in primary effector and effector memory CD8(+) T cells, but low miR-155 expression in naive and central memory cells. Antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses and viral clearance were impaired in miR-155-deficient mice, and this defect was intrinsic to CD8(+) T cells, as miR-155-deficient CD8(+) T cells mounted greatly diminished primary and memory responses. Conversely, miR-155 overexpression augmented antiviral CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo. Gene-expression profiling showed that miR-155-deficient CD8(+) T cells had enhanced type I interferon signaling and were more susceptible to interferon's antiproliferative effect. Inhibition of the type I interferon-associated transcription factors STAT1 or IRF7 resulted in enhanced responses of miR-155-deficient CD8(+) T cells in vivo. We have thus identified a previously unknown role for miR-155 in regulating responsiveness to interferon and CD8(+) T cell responses to pathogens in vivo.

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Nature immunology, 14, 6, 593-602, 2013

PMID: 23603793
DOI: 10.1038/ni.2576

Open Access

Pharmacological inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates T cell development in vitro.
JH Schroeder, LS Bell, ML Janas, M Turner

The development of functional T cells requires receptor-mediated transition through multiple checkpoints in the thymus. Double negative 3 (DN3) thymocytes are selected for the presence of a rearranged TCR beta chain in a process termed β-selection which requires signalling via the pre-TCR, Notch1 and CXCL12. Signal integration by these receptors converges on core pathways including the Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is generally thought to be negatively regulated by the PI3K pathway but its role in β-selection has not been characterised. Here we show that developmental progression of DN3 thymocytes is promoted following inhibition of GSK3 by the synthetic compound CHIR99021. CHIR99021 allows differentiation in the absence of pre-TCR-, Notch1- or CXCL12-mediated signalling. It antagonizes IL-7-mediated inhibition of DP thymocyte differentiation and increases IL-7-promoted cell recovery. These data indicate a potentially important role for inactivation of GSK3 during β-selection. They might help to establish an in vitro stromal cell-free culture system of thymocyte development and offer a new platform for screening regulators of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

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PloS one, 8, 3, e58501, 2013

PMID: 23526989
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058501

Open Access

RNA-binding proteins as a point of convergence of the PI3K and p38 MAPK pathways.
RK Venigalla, M Turner

Understanding the mechanisms by which signal transduction pathways mediate changes in RNA abundance requires the examination of the fate of RNA from its transcription to its degradation. Evidence suggests that RNA abundance is partly regulated by post-transcriptional mechanisms affecting RNA decay and this in turn is modulated by some of the same signaling pathways that control transcription. Furthermore, the translation of mRNA is a key regulatory step that is influenced by signal transduction. These processes are regulated, in part, by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) which bind to sequence-specific RNA elements. The function of RBPs is controlled and co-ordinated by phosphorylation. Based on the current literature we hypothesize that RBPs may be a point of convergence for the activity of different kinases such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase which regulate RBP localization and function.

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Frontiers in immunology, 3, , 398, 2012

PMID: 23272005
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2012.00398

Open Access

A new mechanism of gene regulation mediated by noncoding RNA.
M Turner, PD Katsikis

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 189, 1, 3-4, 2012

PMID: 22723637
DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1201339

Open Access

Essential role for thymosin β4 in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell development and vessel wall stability.
A Rossdeutsch, N Smart, KN Dubé, M Turner, PR Riley

Compromised development of blood vessel walls leads to vascular instability that may predispose to aneurysm with risk of rupture and lethal hemorrhage. There is currently a lack of insight into developmental insults that may define the molecular and cellular characteristics of initiating and perpetrating factors in adult aneurismal disease.

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Circulation research, 111, 4, e89-102, 2012

PMID: 22723298
DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.259846

Open Access

Pten loss in CD4 T cells enhances their helper function but does not lead to autoimmunity or lymphoma.
DR Soond, F Garçon, DT Patton, J Rolf, M Turner, C Scudamore, OA Garden, K Okkenhaug

PTEN, one of the most commonly mutated or lost tumor suppressors in human cancers, antagonizes signaling by the PI3K pathway. Mice with thymocyte-specific deletion of Pten rapidly develop peripheral lymphomas and autoimmunity, which may be caused by failed negative selection of thymocytes or from dysregulation of postthymic T cells. We induced conditional deletion of Pten from CD4 Th cells using a Cre knocked into the Tnfrsf4 (OX40) locus to generate OX40(Cre)Pten(f) mice. Pten-deficient Th cells proliferated more and produced greater concentrations of cytokines. The OX40(Cre)Pten(f) mice had a general increase in the number of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes, but not in the spleen. When transferred into wild-type (WT) mice, Pten-deficient Th cells enhanced anti-Listeria responses and the clearance of tumors under conditions in which WT T cells had no effect. Moreover, inflammatory responses were exaggerated and resolved later in OX40(Cre)Pten(f) mice than in WT mice. However, in contrast with models of thymocyte-specific Pten deletion, lymphomas and autoimmunity were not observed, even in older OX40(Cre)Pten(f) mice. Hence loss of Pten enhances Th cell function without obvious deleterious effects.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 188, 12, 5935-43, 2012

PMID: 22611241
DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1102116

Open Access

An emerging role of RNA-binding proteins as multifunctional regulators of lymphocyte development and function.
M Turner, DJ Hodson

Sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and the regulation of RNA decay have long been recognized as important regulators of the inflammatory response. RBP influence gene expression throughout the lifespan of the mRNA by regulating splicing, polyadenylation, cellular localization, translation, and decay. Increasing evidence now indicates that these proteins, together with the RNA decay machinery that they recruit, also regulate the development and activation of lymphocytes. The activity of RBP is regulated by the same signal transduction pathways that govern lymphocyte development and differentiation in response to antigen and cytokine receptor engagement. Roles for these proteins in regulating the diverse functions of lymphocytes are becoming increasingly apparent.

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Advances in immunology, 115, , 161-85, 2012

PMID: 22608259
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394299-9.00006-0

Regulation of lymphocyte development and function by RNA-binding proteins.
M Turner, D Hodson

Lymphocyte development requires cells to progress through a series of stages, each associated with changes in gene expression. Intense effort has been invested into characterising the dynamic networks of transcription factors underlying these regulated changes. Whilst transcription factors determine the tempo at which mRNA is produced, recent results highlight the importance of the selective regulation of mRNA decay and translation in regulating gene expression. These processes are regulated by sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins (RBP) as well as noncoding RNA such as microRNAs. RNA-binding proteins are emerging as important regulators of cell fate and function in both developing and mature lymphocytes. At the molecular level the function of RNA-binding proteins is integrated with signal transduction pathways that also govern gene transcription.

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Current opinion in immunology, 24, 2, 160-5, 2012

PMID: 22326859
DOI: 10.1016/j.coi.2012.01.011

Interaction of Ras with p110γ is required for thymic β-selection in the mouse.
ML Janas, M Turner

Thymocytes are tested for productive rearrangement of the tcrb locus by expression of a pre-TCR in a process termed β-selection, which requires both Notch1 and CXCR4 signaling. It has been shown that activation of the GTPase Ras allows thymocytes to proliferate and differentiate in the absence of a Pre-TCR; the direct targets of Ras at this checkpoint have not been identified, however. Mice with a mutant allele of p110γ unable to bind active Ras revealed that CXCR4-mediated PI3K activation is Ras dependent. The Ras-p110γ interaction was necessary for efficient β-selection-promoted proliferation but was dispensable for the survival or differentiation of thymocytes. Uncoupling Ras from p110γ provides unambiguous identification of a Ras interaction required for thymic β-selection.

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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 187, 9, 4667-75, 2011

PMID: 21930962
DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101949

Open Access